The following essay offers both a short biography of Psychologist Alfred Binet and a present day practical application using the theory from which Binet developed his Intelligence test.
Alfred Binet, born in Nice, France, on the eleventh of July, whose mother was an artist and whose father was a physician, became one of the most prominent psychologists in French history.
Having received his formal education in both Nice and later, in Paris, at the renowned Lycee Louis -le-Grand, Binet went on to become a lawyer. This profession, however, was not suited to him, and he found himself immersed in the works of J.S. Mill, Bain and Sully at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. He identified strongly with the associationism theory in following that his mentor was J.S. Mill.
Binet began working with Charcot and Fere at the Salpetriere, a famous Parisian hospital, where he absorbed the theories of his teachers in regards to hypnosis, hysteria and abnormal psychology. During the following seven years, he continuously demonstrated his loyalty in defending Charcot’s doctrines on hypnotic transfer and polarization until he was forced to accept the counterattacks of Delboeuf and the Nancy School, which eventually caused a split between student and teacher.
Having been married in 1884 to Laure Balbiani, whose father was E.G. Balbiani, an embryologist at the College de France, Binet was given the opportunity to work in his lab where his interest in ‘comparative psychology’ was piqued and in which he eventually wrote his thesis for his doctorate in natural science, focusing his research on the “the behavior, physiology, histology and anatomy of insects”(Wolfe, p.7). It was while working in Dr. Balbiani’s lab, that Binet wrote ‘Animal Magnetism’, an obvious breaking away from associationism, showing Binet’s ability to adapt and learn with every opportunity.
Binet’s next area of interest could be considered a precursor to some of Piaget’s work with child psychology and began with the systematic observation of his two daughters, to whom he devoted much of his time, studying and writing about. It was at this point, that Binet “came to realize that individual differences had to be systematically explored before one could determine laws which would apply to all people”(Pollack,p.xii).
Soon after, Binet was nominated co-director and one year later, became director of the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne. He and Beaunis, also co-director, initiated and edited the first French psychological journal ‘L’Annee Psychologique’, which remains in press today.
Although never having attained a professorship in his own country (a bitter disappointment for the proud nationalist) Binet did spend one spring in Bucharest where his knowledge in experimental psychology was fully appreciated as he taught to auditoriums filled to capacity, and was thus offered a chair in psychophysiology. Binet refused, unable to remain away from Paris.
The ‘Society Libre pour l’Etude Psychologique de l’Enfant’, was established in 1900 by Binet and Ferdinand Buisson. This organization’s concerns dealt with practical problems in the school setting. Binet, after having proven himself through his work here, was appointed to a commission which was to adorn Binet with his most famous contribution in Psychology…the ‘Methodes Nouvelles pour le Diagnostic du Niveau Intellectuel des Anormaux’, a series of tests developed by he and his partner, Theodore Simone, allowing the differentiaion of normal from retarded children in the school system, thus allowing the slower children to be separated for remedial help. Although never used extensively in France, this of course, was the precursor (although used for different and opposable reasons than were initially intended by Binet) of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test.
Alfred Binet “attempted to penetrate the human mind, to analyze its wellspring, to understand it as a complete whole”(Wolfe, p. 327). His work was diverse, covering areas such as systematic introspection, suggestibility, research with abnormals, mental fatigue, psychology of legal testimony, experimental study of children and experimental pedigogy.
Binet died in Paris in 1911. As a French Psychologist, he was never appreciated, specifically by the French, to the extent that his work and dedication merited him to be. Binet’s work was diverse, showing interest in the person as a whole and therefore, trying to understand all facets comprising man. His work, although contributing much in the sense that it was often the precursor of more detailed, profound research, was never detailed enough to formulate any firm theories in any one area.
Binet’s crownig glory was the formulation of the first intelligence test. The development of this test is explained fully in the ‘The Psychological Testing Enterprise, An Introduction’ pages 191 to 208.
Binet’s theory which argues that “the best way to predict success in school was to measure success in school”(Rogers, p.653), can equally be applied in other situations. In breaking up the whole into a series of minitasks which allow the demonstration of ability, one can properly assess and place the learner in a learning situation which will best benefit that individual.
The following example deals with the sport of hockey. As it stands, children are separated into age divisions regardless of physical development, experience, etc.. In following Binet’s theory, we shall take the game of hockey and divide it into minitasks such as:
switching directions quickly on command
Although I’m sure there are many more minitasks into which this complex game can be sub-divided, this provides a starting point from which to work and is the first step in our process.
Start testing all children in the norm group in all tasks. Some of the children will perform many of the subtests well, but others will not. There will be a natural division due to the abilities of the children.
Start with the easiest subtests and gradually increase difficulty.
The subtests in each scale will be determined by the percentage of children who can do this subtest well.
Sixty-five to seventy-five per cent of children in each level should be able to pass the subtests of that specific scale. Each scale would therefore, be determined following the natural separation of subtests by the different abilities of the participants.
Most of the children in the level below, should not be able to perform the subtests in this specific scale; most of the children in the level above should be able to perform the subtests well.
Therefore, if the lowest 65% of the children can skate forward, stop spontaneously and switch directions, but cannot perform the other tasks well, these three subtasks will become one scale. The next scale would consist of the following tasks which are performed at a consistent level by the next lowest 65% of the players.
Each level will thus contain a scale of subtests which the children will work at mastering during the session. The levels should range from basic scales, concentrating on the easiest subtests to levels which are comprised of scales needing great skill in order to master the subtests.
In this manner, children would be separated on the basis of skill level and would thus receive the attention that they needed. They would play more and see more ice time, because they would be playing with their equals and they would thereby be provided with the optimal opportunity for skill development. Advancement would be based on the acquiring of the skills of the next level: Children would not be moved automatically to the next level with this same group. They would advance when they demonstrate that they can perform 80% of the subtests of the scale they are presently in and would therefore always be playing at a level which would be most beneficial to the development of their individual potential.