.. xes to keep the deficit down. The JOSPIN administration is preparing to both lower unemployment and trim spending, pinning its hopes for new jobs on economic growth and on legislation to gradually reduce the workweek from 39 to 35 hours by 2002 (French Economy). Manufacturing In the early 1990s, manufacturing employed between 20% and 25% of the labor force (Country Reports). The principal industrial concentrations are around Paris, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Lorraine coalfields, in the Lyon and Saint-tienne complex of the Rhne valley, and in the new industrial centers that have emerged in the English Channel ports of Dunkerque and the Mediterranean industrial complex at Fos because of the use of imported raw materials. Many French business enterprises are small to moderate in size, although the competitive business climate created by membership in the EC has forced many companies to be restructured and combined to form powerful corporations (Martinique).
The leading manufacturing industries are metallurgy, mechanical and electrical engineering, chemicals, and textiles. In 1986, France ranked third in Europe in steel production with an output of 14.8 million metric tons and second in aluminum output (Martinique). These and imported metals are fabricated into a wide range of mechanical and electrical equipment marketed throughout the world. French locomotives, turbines, electronics equipment, nuclear power plants and submarines, and television systems are famous for their innovative design, as are French automobiles, such as Citroen, Peugeot, Simca, and Renault, and French aircraft, such as Mirage, Concorde, and Airbus. A wide range of chemicals, including perfumes, pharmaceuticals, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and fertilizers, are also produced.
The French textile and garment industry has long been known for its high fashion, although in recent years the industry has lost many former markets to lower-priced imports from countries with lower labor costs. (Martinique). Mining Less than 1% of the labor force is engaged in mining (Country Reports). In 1988 coal production was 14.5 million metric tons (16.9 million U.S. tons), most of it from two principal coalfields — the Lorraine coalfield near Metz, which is an extension into France of the Saar coalfield; and the Nord-Pas de Calais coalfield around Lille, which is an extension into France of Belgium’s Sambre-Meuse coalfields and is similarly thin-seamed, faulted, and difficult to work (Country Reports).
Since the 1950s many inefficient mines in the north and in the Massif Central have been closed, and coal output has declined by about 75% (?). Large bauxite deposits (from which aluminum is produced) are mined in the south; France is one of Europe’s leading producers of bauxite. Potash deposits, used in the chemical industry, are extensive in the vicinity of Mulhouse. Natural gas deposits have been worked since 1951(Country Reports). Small amounts of petroleum are produced at the Parentis oilfield in the southwest, and the search for petroleum deposits continues off the coast of Brittany and in the Bay of Biscay (Country Reports). Power France’s fuel resources are inadequate.
The country has to import three-quarters of the fuel, mainly petroleum, needed to meet its requirements. However, production of electrical energy is significant. In 1988 output reached 372 billion kW h, with nuclear energy representing 70% of the total (Martinique). France is the world’s second-largest supplier of nuclear power after the United States (Martinique). Hydroelectric plants operate on the Isre, Durance, Rhine, Rhne, and Dordogne rivers. A tidal power plant is located on the Rance River in Brittany (Martinique).
Agriculture and Fishing France is the leading agricultural nation in Europe and about 7% of the labor force are engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing (Country Reports). Three-fifths of the land area is used for farming; about 31% are cultivated, 3% is in vineyards and orchards, and 24% is used as meadow and pasture (Country Reports). In 1988, 47.6% of France’s farm income came from livestock raising (Country Reports). Cattle are raised mainly in the north and west; sheep and goats are raised primarily in the drier, more mountainous south and east, and pigs and chickens are raised throughout the country. France is Europe’s leading producer of beef, veal, poultry, and cheese and a leading producer of milk and eggs (Martinique).
Crops contribute about 52% of farm income, with cereals and sugar beets the most important products (Country Reports). Wheat is widely grown in the Paris Basin, and France ranks fifth in world wheat production (Martinique). Other grains grown are barley, corn, and oats, which, with sugar beet factory residues, are used primarily for livestock feed; some rice is grown under irrigation in the Rhne delta. Wine is a major crop throughout the country, both the vin ordinaire, everyday wine, of the region and the appellation controle, or quality-controlled, wines of such regions as Burgundy, Champagne, Bordeaux, and Alsace. Flowers are grown for perfume at Grasse, and a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are raised in the warm Mediterranean region for shipment to northern and central Europe.
(Martinique). Fishing, unlike agriculture, occupies only a modest place in the economy, but France ranks 20th among the nations of the world in total fish production (Martinique). Fishing is locally important in the coastal areas of Normandy and Brittany, the Southern Atlantic coast, and the Mediterranean. Concarneau, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lorient, and La Rochelle are leading fishing ports (Martinique). Trade and Tourism France is the fourth largest exporter and the fifth-largest importer on the foreign trade market. The two principal ports are Marseille and its annexes on the Mediterranean, and Le Havre at the mouth of the Seine on the English Channel. In 1989 major imports broke down as follows: machinery (26.6%); chemicals and chemical products (15.7%); agricultural products (11.6%); automobiles (5.8%); petroleum and petroleum products (4.5%); other fuels (4.3%) (Country Reports).
Major exports were machinery (27.7%); agricultural products (17.5%); chemicals (15.1%); and transportation equipment (12.7%) (Country Reports). Most trade is conducted with other members of the EC. In 1997 more than 67 million tourists visited France, which ranked third among the nations of the world in number of tourists (Country Reports). Conclusion Anheuser-Busch has achieved excellence around the world as the leader in the beer industry. While the company ran into problems with its home town counterpart, Budvar’s Budweiser, it eventually gained respect and stature among the beer drinkers community around the world.
Although many Europeans dismissed the beer at first it has made a place in each European country. France is known for it’s wines and gourmet food but the people have grown to love and enjoy our American tradition Budweiser from Anheuser-Busch. Economics.