Theory of Care Vs. Theory of Justice
Ethical philosophy has been defined on two separate halves over the years. One approach is that of a Theory of Justice, and one of a Theory of Care. These to theories share distinct differences in their explanations of moral reasoning. The Theory of Justices masterminds, John Rawls and Bjorn Kants set-in-stone beliefs of ethical Justice is the highest contradictory point of the two views. Annette Baier and Virginia Helds Theory of Care demonstrates a more highly caring and emotional platform on their views towards ethics.
Kants theories came first in the early 1700s. His beliefs were based upon a fundamental idea known as categorical imperative, which provides a basis for determining moral rules and prescribes that individuals should follow these rules. These views have the same implications as the Golden Rule of, Do unto as you would have them do unto you.
For Rawls moral philosophy, he used a technique similar to that of Kants. In his 1971 classic A Theory of Justice, Rawls hoped to show us a view of a just state without having the implications of an unattainable utopian society. By having the people conceive themselves as possible constructors of a future just society and also having them ignore their own social, racial, and economic status, Rawls created a so-called Veil of Ignorance. Rawls then took away all information irrelevant to the question of justice. This created an environment known as Rawls Original Position. From here, he deducted that a rational person would come up with two basic ideas of justice. One being to maintain personal liberties such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion. The other basic justice would be to have an equality to opportunity. In this equality, he envisioned the rich people of the society not overpowering the poorer; thus he allowed several inequalities to take place only on the grounds that it would benefit those people who are the poorest.
The ethics of care on the other hand backed the works of Annette Baier, Virginia Held, Carol Gilligan, and several other philosophers. This rationale defines not the role of fairness in a persons life, but care. This theory came from a feminist viewpoint of compassion, but has since been deemed equivocal to both genders. The ethics of care relies on communication, relationships, and compassion. Under the ethics of care people use emotion and empathy in their decision making and do not seek to be impartial.
Its basic beliefs can be better expressed by the views of Carol Gilligan, Care is the wish not to hurt others and the hope that in morality lies a way of solving conflicts so that no one will be hurt. Care focused on the dynamics of relationships and dissipates the tension between selfishness and responsibility through a new understanding of the interconnection between other and self.
The ethics of care attempts to invalidate Rawls overpowering impersonal beliefs and restore humanity back into moral reasoning.
In conclusion, the arguments of both sides prove valid points and it can clearly be seen that neither side of the debate is entirely correct. People need to be influenced by both ethical beliefs in order to conclude a higher method of living. The ideas of care and compassion are proportionately important to living as justice and equality, and it is important not to neglect either ideal for proper existence.
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