General Management

EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICAN MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
EMBA
GM501: GENERAL MANAGEMENT
TERM PROJECT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
The world is experiencing an economic revolution unlike any since the dawn of the industrial revolution and good leadership is particularly crucial now. In order to enhance your effectiveness, you need to be able to measure and quantify your leadership style.


1.1 What is leadership?
While there is vast disagreement over what exactly leadership is, but whatever it is, it seems to make a substantial difference to organizations. Leadership is typically offered as a solution for most of the problems we have.

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Leadership in organization has a different and more meaningful definition. Leadership is all about taking people to places they would not go alone or on their own. It is defined as the process of influencing people or team members to work towards common objectives, principles and values. A person is said to have an influence on others when they are willing to carry out his/her wishes and accept his/her advice or guidance. Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm and doing it willingly.
1.2 What makes good leadership? The fact is that there are many factors/qualities that contribute to good leadership. Anyone can be a good leader; however some have greater leadership potential than others, many researchers have concluded that individuals can learn and practice certain technical skills that make them good leaders. Good leadership enables people to work together well and realize their potential. Good leadership develops through a never ending process of self study, education, training and experience. Effective communication, empathy, authority, and social skills can be taught and combined with individual personality to make good leadership.


2.0 Several factors that constitute good leadership:
Motivation
The key to holding the team together is motivation. Motivation can be considered as the amount of effort an individual is willing to put into their work. Therefore, it is important to ensure that any team is highly motivated towards their work. A lack of motivation in any member of a team can have a negative affect, reducing the group’s effectiveness and possibly leading to the demotivation of others. The first step in creating an atmosphere that will motivate employees is expressing appreciation. Research shows that people often leave an employer because they have not received the recognition they want or feedback on how they are doing. People want to feel involved in their jobs and important to the success of their companies. Leaders can motivate employees by asking them to set their own job goals and suggest better ways to do things. Good leadership consists of motivating people to their highest level by offering them opportunities not obligations.
;#61656;Communication
Good leaders must be able to speak effectively in public and in most cases; they must have good writing skills. Communication is a key to being a good leader. Communications is much more than being a good speaker. Good leaders must have the ability to communicate a vision effectively to others. Lay out organization’s goals and principles in a mission statement and keep sharing vision with employees. Effective communication goes up and down the organization. Employees want to hear their leaders’ ideas and plans. Effective communication wins organization trust and confidence. Good leaders keep their people informed.

;#61656;Having vision:
Is the ability to translate the vision into reality. All good leaders should have the capacity to create a compelling vision, one that takes people to a new place. Good leaders must be very forward thinking and be able to see the organization not only moving forward but already there. Good leaders should know where the business is going.

;#61656;Delegation
A good leader utilizes other people’s talents to achieve the desired goals. Often this occurs through the delegations of tasks and authority to talented supporters. This requires that a good leader be perceptive in recognizing his/her own talents and limitations and those of his/her supporters. Delegating is a critical skill for good leaders
Decision making
One of the most important tasks of a good leader is to make decisions. Good leadership requires the decisions to be both sound and practical and it should not be in the monopoly of top management alone.
Technical proficiency
Good leaders must know their job and have a solid familiarity with their employees’ jobs. A good leader should possess a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of his/her job. Besides he/she should be quite familiar with the jobs done at different work points in his/her department.

;#61656;Facilitate change
Good leadership is the mechanism to influence people about the need for change. Dynamic leadership is the foundation stone of organizational change and development. “In a world of change and uncertainty, the business leader becomes a vital element in the very process of change itself”. Good leader should know how to plan ahead, find best strategies, decide and implement, agree targets and objectives, monitor and control progress, evaluate performance, carry out appraisal and target-setting interviews.
;#61656;Coordination
Leadership helps to unify individual efforts. Leadership is the cohesive force which holds the group intact, the force that transforms chaos into order, the electric current that energizes human action. A good leader fosters mutual understanding and team spirit among his followers. He/She creates a community of interests of the subordinates. He/She resolves internal conflicts by serving as arbitrator and mediator between the opposing factions.
3.0 PERSONAL TRAITS
Personal traits whether inherited or developed are necessary for good leadership. They play a major role in determining who will and who will not be comfortable leading others. However, it’s important to remember that people are forever learning and changing. Some of the personal traits related to good leadership are as follows:
Be Ready for Resistance
One of the facts of life is that when you are in leadership you have to solve problems. As leaders, we have to be responsible, no matter how painful it is. Running away is not an option. Facing problems and dealing with them by making good decisions is the difference between a leader and a follower
Be Ethical
What set of values dictate leaders’ ethics – their behavior? Or do they have a code of ethics? If they don’t, they should write down their non-negotiable code of ethics. It is of utmost importance to have high ethical standards to be a good leader
Mental toughness
No one can lead without being criticized or without facing discouragement. A good leader needs a mental toughness. I don’t want a mean leader; I want a tough-minded leader who sees things as they are and will pay the price. Leadership creates a certain separation from one’s peers. Good leaders are practical, logical, and to-the-point; they are usually insensitive to hardship and overall, are very poised, comfortable with criticism and emotionally stable.

Being Respectful
The leader gives instructions in an appropriate tone and manner. He/She speaks (or writes) distinctly without sounding “bossy.” Instructions during the job are kept to a minimum. People are told as much as they want or need to know. Encourage individual initiative and let people make significant contributions
Setting the Example
As the leader, he/she watches to see that the job is performed on time. He/She encourages everyone to do their best, sees that work is properly delegated, and sets positive examples at all times. They should be a good role model for their employees. Employees must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see.

Enthusiasm.
Leaders are usually seen as active, expressive, and energetic. They are often very optimistic and open to change. Overall, they are generally quick and alert and tend to be uninhibited.
Conscientiousness
Leaders are often dominated by a sense of duty and tend to be very exacting in character. They usually have a very high standard of excellence and an inward desire to do one’s best. They also have a need for order and tend to be very self-disciplined.
;#61656;Social boldness
Leaders tend to be spontaneous risk-takers. They are usually socially aggressive and generally thick-skinned. Overall, they are responsive to others and tend to be high in emotional stamina. Self-assurance, self-confidence and resiliency are common traits among leaders. They tend to be free of guilt and have little or no need for approval. They are generally secure and are usually unaffected by prior mistakes or failures.
;#61656;Empathy
Being able to “put yourself in the other person’s shoes” is a key trait of good leaders today. Without empathy, you can’t build trust. And without trust, you will never be able to get the best effort from your employees.
Charisma
Leaders who have charisma are able to arouse strong emotions in their employees by defining a vision which unites and captivates them. Using this vision, leaders motivate employees to reach toward a future goal by tying the goal to substantial personal rewards and values.
Honesty and trustworthy
Good leaders need to be honest both now and in the future. Most people will believe and follow someone they trust. Openness and candor are characteristics that most people appreciate. There are a few people who will take advantage of such traits, but the vast majority will appreciate them. To be a good leader, one must earn trust. Otherwise, there will be no followers. It is not necessary to like a leader to trust him/her nor is it necessary always to agree with him/her. Trust is the conviction that the leader means what he/she says. It is a belief in something very old-fashioned. Good leadership is not based on being clever but on being consistent and fair.

Practical
A leader must realize that pleasing all of the people all of the time is not possible. A good leader must be practical in decisions made catering to the majority, perceptive enough to realize when the majority is right and strong enough to take action without the support of the majority when the majority is wrong. At the same time they must be strong enough to stand by their convictions and accept the criticisms valid and invalid which are sure to come.
CHAPTER TWO
4.0 Assessment of the leadership quality of the Tanzania Civil Aviation Authority (TCAA)
Tanzania Civil Aviation Authority was established on 1st November 2003 as a Corporate Body under the Tanzania Civil Aviation Authority Act, 2003.
The TCAA is responsible for regulating the activities of persons and institutions carrying on air transport services (carriage of passengers and cargo, both domestic and international), aeronautical airport services (airport operators, ground handlers, cargo operators, hanger facilities, airport security, in-flight caterers and aircraft fuelling services), air navigation services (includes air traffic services and associated infrastructure, and aeronautical meteorological services) as well as continue with the provision of air navigation services.

I work with the TCAA as Senior Air Navigation Engineer under Air Navigation Services.

In order to achieve the above obligations effectively we need a different set of skills from good leadership and can be determined by the way in which people co-operate with each other, with the leadership and with the community, indeed the extent of their commitment to their organization, depend on the style of management and leadership.

The leadership quality of the authority was assessed through questionnaire and interviewing senior leaders, employees, and my own views, observations and experience with TCAA.

Ten senior leaders were asked to complete the questionnaire, which determines the degree that a person likes working with given tasks and cooperate with other staff. The Blake and Mouton Management Grid(attached over leaf) were plotted against the results, the chart shows the relationship between task and people, nine leaders according to the chart they fall in the Team Leader category. This type of leadership leads by positive example; the leaders encourage the team to reach goals as effectively as possible. The chart gives us an idea of TCAA leadership style, but other factors should be considered, like how do employees rate their leaders. It was noted that most of the leaders fear to take necessary step in matters or issues raised by employees because they want to hold their position and stay in their jobs.
An assessment tool from the Baldrige National Quality Program was used to assess how TCAA is performing and if it is making progress.

Forty employees completed the questionnaire.

Questionnaire results are as shown below:
Category 1: LeadershipStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
1a)I know my organization’s mission (what it is trying to accomplish)25%0%5%20%50%
1b)My senior (top) leaders use our organization’s values to guide us.0%15%17.5%37.5%30%
1c)My senior leaders create a work environment that helps me do my job0%15%20%50%15%
1d)My organization’s leaders share information about the organization.25%15%22.5%12.5%25%
1c)My senior leaders encourage learning that will help me advance in my career5%15%0%45%35%
1f)My organization lets me know what it thinks is most important0%5%15%50%30%
1g)My organization asks what I think60%30%0%10%0%
Category 2: Strategic PlanningStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
2a)As it plans for the future, my organization asks for my ideas7.5%22.5%20%35%15
2b)I know the parts of my organization’s plans that will affect me and my work.25%17.5%20%25%12.5%
2c)I know how to tell if we are making progress on my work group’s part of the plan25%15%15%30%15%
Category 3: Customer and Market FocusStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
3a)I know who my most important customers are0%5%40%30%25%
3b)I keep in touch with my customers0%20%5%52.5%22.5%
3c)My customers tell me what they need and want0%5%15%50%30%
3d)I ask if my customers are satisfied or dissatisfied with my work30%20%15%25%10%
3e)I am allowed to make decisions to solve problems for my customers.30%20%20%20%10%
Category 4: Information and AnalysisStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
4a)I know how to measure the quality of my work0%15%10%50%25%
4b)I know how to analyze(review) the quality of my work to see if changes are needed0%15%10%50%25%
4c)I use these analyses for making decisions about my work0%15%10%50%25%
4d)I know how the measures I use in my work fit into the organization’s overall measures of improvement0%2.5%12.5%55%30%
4e)I get all the important information I need to do my work10%0%15%40%35%
4f)I get the information I need to know about how my organization is doing.32.5%47.5%5%12.5%2.5
Category 5: Human Resource FocusStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
5a)I can make changes that will improve my work0%5%10%50%35%
5b)The people I work with cooperate and work as a team0%0%20%60%20%
5c)My boss encourages me to develop my job skills so I can advance in my career.5%10%15.5%47.5%20%
5d)I am recognized for my work50%30%0%15%5%
5c)I have a safe workplace0%0%5%67.5%27.5%
5f)My boss and organization care about me.0%5%30%40%25%
Category 6: Process managementStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
6a)I can get everything I need to do my job10%20%15%45%10%
6b)I collect information (data) about the quality of my5%10%20%55%10%
6c)We have good processes for doing our work0%30%20%40%10%
6d)I have control over my work processes.5%15%25%47.5%7.5%
Category 7: Business ResultsStrongly Disagree
DisagreeNeither Agree or Disagree
AgreeStrongly Agree
7a)My customers are satisfied with my work20%10%15%35%20%
7b)My work products meet all requirements0%10%25%60%5%
7c)I know how well my organization is doing financially.40%20%10%25%5%
7d)My organization uses my time and talents well5%25%17.5%47.55%
7e)My organization removes things that get in the way of progress7.5%27.530%30%5%
7f)My organization obeys laws and regulations10%5%5%30%50%
7g)My organization has high standards and ethics30%25%20%205%
7h)My organization help me help my community39%10%20%30%10
7i)I am satisfied with my job10%20%20%35%15
Report
On Human Resource Focus, 50% employees said they were not recognized but most of the employees say their working place is safe and conducive to work, on Leadership, 25% employees said there no sharing of information about the organization, 25% of the employees do not know the mission of the authority, it is an indication of poor communication. 47.5% employees do not know how authority is going and 40% how the authority is doing financially. 30% said TCAA has no standards and ethics.
Below are the things which were noted when conducting interview concerning leadership and management. 40 employees were interviewed mostly low and middle class employees.

Leaders do not provide written policy guidelines and other documented statement for clear and consistent communication. However general staff meetings are conducted but ideas are not implemented and problems are not solved.

Poor delegation: Most of the managers and leaders are slow to delegate because they fear no one will do the job properly. I have noted this because most of the leaders/managers are always working late. Team motivation and morale is down. Some of the subordinates are not trusted by their leaders.
Most of the employees complain about poor benefits and low salaries. In short they are not motivated.

Employees are not empowered, they have no say in their day to day operational decision, the leaders/managers are prime decision makers and not facilitators and subordinates continue to look for decisions from their bosses
There is cronyisms in selection for training and various posts
Assessment reveals that trust and loyalty are rare commodities in the workplace. Nearly half of employees say that they can’t fully trust their leaders and almost the same amount say that they never feel fully appreciated or recognized at work.
I have noted that continuous process of change makes most of the people fear their security of tenure and do not have faith with the management. Fear of the unknown keeps most of the people from not performing their duties properly, they don’t have self-confidence. TCAA has been transformed twice since 1999, most people see changes as a threat to their job security.
Lack of accountability and discipline: Many managers and leaders are afraid to hold people accountable for fear of not being liked.
There is lack of participative management approach as a result, most of the important issues of the authority are not communicated or channeled down to people.


Positive observation
In order to achieve its business goals and objectives, several key success factors have been identified which will make TCAA competitive in the aviation business. Some of these are implementation of comprehensive functional Management Information System (MIS), development of effective financial management, modernization of air navigation equipment and highly motivated, competent and dedicated staff. Further, in order to position itself in the business, TCAA has taken a number of initiatives, such as annual development of business and strategic plans, organizational review and measures to improve staff remuneration package.

The authority benchmarked its performance based on European Business Excellence Model every year.

Open Performance Review Appraisal System (OPRAs) is established to review employees’ performance and improve interpersonal communication.
Regular Medical program is in place to safeguard the wellness of the employees.

CHAPTER THREE
5.0 Recommendations:
From the above observations,
;#61656;Reaction to Recognition
Recognition is important; it builds positive self-esteem. By itself, its benefits are short lived. Long-term benefits are achieved when the employee feels the job could not have been done without them. This means they were faced with a challenge, which they had the responsibility and authority to take action. Our leaders should give particular attention to those who are doing well. Publically praise those who are on track. Present reward system is not good; bonus should be used instead. Most of the employees think that the present reward system is not fair since everyone is the part and parcel of the authority.

;#61656;Benefits and Salaries
Salary is subject which is always sensitive, but there are distinct patterns for low salary and high salary companies. First, low salary companies are training grounds for high salary companies. High salary companies can hire the best of the best, thereby, maintaining a high quality, highly efficient workforce. In low salary companies, managers and workers are in conflict, because managers do not have the resources and/or skills to be quality performance leaders. The lack of resources inspires problems that spiral out of control. Management blames workers and workers blame management. TCAA management should consider high salaries to boost morale and maintain quality.
;#61656;Empowerment
Empowerment means letting go of the authority to make certain decisions. This is partly a good management practice and partly about facing reality. Supervisors should get people to realize how much power they have already through their specialist skills and knowledge.

Our Managers and Chiefs should struggle for awhile to change their habits. Leaders’ culture has to change, and then people have to be developed to overcome their fears of acting without leader’s approval.

;#61656;Motivation
A major function of leaders is to motivate other individuals and groups. There are approaches to motivating people that are destructive, example fear, intimidation, etc, these approaches are hurtful, and in addition, they usually only motivate for the short-term. There are approaches that are constructive, example, effective delegation, coaching, etc. These approaches can be very effective in motivating others and for long periods of time.
Note that different people can have quite different motivators. For example, some people are motivated by more money, others by more recognition, time off from work, promotions, and opportunities for learning, opportunities for socializing and relationships, etc. Therefore, when attempting to motivate people, it’s important for TCAA management to identify what motivates employees. Ultimately, though, long-term motivation comes from people motivating themselves.
Technology is bringing a change in leadership styles. The command-and-control leadership methods of the last century are extremely inefficient in the fast changing technology world. Motivating environments are needed on the front-line with people who assume responsibility and exercise leadership. To attract and keep this type of person, the work environment must inspire and exploit employee capabilities
Communication
Two-way communication, being approachable and having an “open door” policy makes for very good team relations. This is crucial in building a trusting and open environment. It must be an established norm that it is okay to ask for help and that players can communicate openly without fear of punishment. The way one communicates with and leads a team may play a big part in their motivation to work hard.

Steps to Effective Communication
Listen actively – ask open questions supportively – those not answerable by yes or no.

Thank people for their openness – stress how much you value it – even if you don’t particularly like what they said.

Point to areas of agreement before jumping on areas of disagreement – this reduces defensiveness by letting the other person know that you agree in part – hence not attacking everything they said.

Portray any disagreement as simple a difference of opinion – controlling your anger so as not to convey an “I’m right” – “You’re wrong” attitude.

A negative reaction will strongly influence the other person – either to get angry back or say nothing next time.

People seek confirmation of their own views, so if you really want other people’s views, don’t penalize them for not agreeing with you! Easier said than done.

Create an atmosphere of partnership to reduce fear in subordinates.
Communicate in open, candid, clear, complete, and consistent manner
Listen effectively and probes for new ideas.
Use facts and rational arguments to influence and persuade
Break down barriers and develops influential relationships across teams, functions, and layer
;#61656;Managing change successfully
Fear of change stems from low self esteem. Low self esteem doubts your ability to cope and change threatens your security if your self esteem is low. Change is enjoyable only if you have no stake in the status quo. It is backwards to think people can first decide to change and then simply do it. We need to try it first and only then decide it is acceptable or at least not too threatening.

From a psychological point of view, managing change is about helping people maintain or enhance their self esteem through the period of transition.

;#61656;Feedback
Only feedback from others can reveal the true impact to make on people. Negative feedback will show what to focus on to develop good leadership. A well-designed 360-degree feedback process will help an authority to get realistic feedback. Various colleagues, subordinates and other stakeholders must fill in feedback questionnaires anonymously.


;#61656;Coaching best practices
Our leaders should be there to coach, direct and push players in the direction of the goals. They should have a strong ability to pass their intensity along to others. A leader guides a team, not rules a team.

Coaching can be especially useful to help individuals address complex problems and/or attain significant goals and do so in a highly individualized fashion. Helping supervisors achieve full potential and focusing on what they do every day on the job and practicing new approaches, re-framing how they see things and learning new skills.
Leaders should be able to offer developmental tips as required, more direct coaching is good for specific skill improvement such as how to manage time or delegate more effectively. In this case, executive coaching works exactly the same way as sports coaching.
;#61656;Insist on accountability
Another important aspect of good leadership involves traits such as accountability, structure and discipline.

Good leaders understand how to prioritize and hold their people responsible for achieving quantifiable results. Having the discipline to maintain team’s focus on the desired goals and objectives creates a natural tendency of ownership across a team.

They will be respected because they create a structure around them that rewards and recognizes the best and brightest and because they are not afraid to make the tough decisions about poor performers. TCAA should create a structure of accountability and discipline.


Team work
Teamwork is always something to consider when we would like to have a good leadership. This means not only teaching employees to work together but to become part of the team. Many times, employees’ potential is wasted.

A good leader recognizes that his or her employees are more than just employees, they are people too. These people have lives outside of work where they have to make decisions on a daily basis, from how to deal with house payments, to car bills, to raising children, to uncountable tasks in everyday lives. Yet, at work, their decision making skills are not trusted enough to choose what type of toner needs to be ordered for a set of printers.
The point here is that employees need to be trusted to do more. Genuine teamwork does not recognize level, position or status therefore routine decision which relate to the day to day operations of the authority can be taken repetitively in accordance with the established policies, practices and procedures by lower level employees.

;#61656;Equality in treatment of others.
People insist on leaders having a sense of fair play. They want to feel they are being given assignments entirely upon their merits and that the leader will not play favorites. Not only is favoritism a sign of weak character, it can also wreck an organization.
;#61656;Good judgment and common sense.
A good leader needs the wisdom to look into the future and plan for it. These additional ingredients make for the best leaders. The leader sees leadership as responsibility rather than as rank and privilege. When things go wrong and they always do, leaders do not blame others. Napoleon said: “There are no bad soldiers, only bad officers.” A good leader takes a little larger share of the blame
6.0 Conclusion
Our organization depends upon the quality of its leadership. Good people will not stay forever in an organization lacking quality leadership. They will leave. In order to enhance effectiveness, leaders need to be able to measure and quantify their leadership style by adopting a way of managing which moves with the times, spreads throughout the organization and has the backing of those who work in it. It is more effective by adopting a participative style of leadership.
Excellence in leadership is acquired by people who have a strong sense of vision, have passion and are able to get people to commit 100% and take the necessary action to see that vision become a reality. Good leadership and management excel in the art of communication and motivation, mutual respect, instilling confidence and enthusiasm, and showing credibility and integrity on a consistent basis.
All in all anyone can be a leader men or women. “If women would realize what an influence they have, they would be filled with pride. If men recognized how influential women are, they would be scared to death.” By Katherine Kehler.
Reference:
1.Tim Hannagan: Management Concepts and Practices, New York: Financial Times, Pitman Publishing 2nd edition1998
2.N.A Saleem and J.B Bogonko Management Principles and Practice Saleem Publisher 1st edition 1997
3.http:www.nwlink.com
4.http:www.tisjd.net/good_leadership.pdf
5.http:ssu.missouri.edu/faculty/Rcampbell/leadership/
6.http:www.hbsworkingknowledge.edu
7.http:www.drugtopic.com
8.http://www.retirementwithapurpose.com/
9.http://web.cba.neu.edu/ewertheim/leader/leader.htm#idea
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11.http://www.baldrige.nist.gov/PDF_files/Progress.pdf
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13http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/tests_leadership_ef_byge.html
TCAA personnel contacted:
1.Dar es Salaam International Airport Commandant Mr. L. M Paul
2.Human Resource Officer, G. Uronu
3.Manager Telecommunication, G. Mpili
4.Chief CNS-ATM, A.M.A Mwamafupa
5.Chief ATS, G. Makoroma
6.IT Manager , A. Mwella