Global Warming

.. panies have already begun to implement some programmes to reduce GHGs emissions, by investing in more Energy Efficiency programmes and Green Power. Indeed, energy efficiency in business can lead to many competitive advantages. Measures can be implemented in several areas: building and facilities; production processes; end-use products; and transportation. These sectors provide many opportunities for cutting costs, increasing profits and enhancing the image of companies.

Some ways to save energy include installing efficient lighting, capturing and reusing waste heat, insulating buildings and computerising heating and cooling systems. These kinds of programmes are almost risk-free and can provide high returns. Moreover, benefits can be easily measured, calculated and forecasted. In fact, energy efficiency is one of the most effective means to reduce costs and add value to a firm. There are several examples of benefits in taking energy-efficiency initiatives.

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First, it reduces direct costs: for some industries, gas and electricity represent a large share of operating costs, reducing energy consumption can therefore greatly diminish expenses. Even for companies that do not consume much energy, any energy savings influence directly their bottom line. Second, it improves utility rate negotiation: Indeed, electricity rates are often higher during peak periods. Thus, if a company uses less electricity during peak periods, it obtains more bargaining power to negotiate a lower unit price per kilowatt-hour. Third, it improves worker productivity: Energy-efficient building design can often produce great benefits in higher worker productivity, lower absenteeism and few errors. For instance, it has been demonstrated that daylighting can have a significant impact on productivity, increasing worker effectiveness. Green power, such as wind or solar energy, which is emerging as a viable energy source for businesses, provides also benefits that are complementary to energy efficiency.

First, it provides an incentive for saving energy: Even though green power might be still more expensive, in some areas, than traditional power, if a company couples it with energy efficiency measures, it can diminish its total energy consumption and therefore drives the price of green power down by stimulating the green power market. Second, it provides a competitive advantage: The companies that choose to buy green power differentiate themselves in a competitive market, and thus set or raise the environmental standard for other firms. Third, using green power enhances corporate reputation: Purchasing green power is a way to retain customers concerned by environmental matters, and it also enhances a company’s reputation as an environmental leader. A good mean to enhance reputation is also to install an on-site power generation system, as it is a visible statement of the company’s environmental commitment. Gilette is one of these companies that have managed to reduce energy consumption without affecting its economic performance.

The Gillette Company today is the global market leader in nearly a dozen major consumer products categories, principally in the grooming, portable power and oral care businesses. During the period 1994-1997, the energy consumption of Gilette increased by an average of 4% per year whereas the business had grown by 10% per year. When Gilette built a new administrative building in Argentina, they regarded energy efficiency as a major factor in its design. They put an automation system in place that controls the air volume, conditioned air and lighting. They also used advanced-design building materials, including sun visors that neutralise the solar impact.

Aware of the issue of Global Warming, Gilette has taken action through its Worldwide Energy and Water Conservation Programs. Although the GHG emissions of the company’s manufacturing operations were 122,000 metric tons in 1997 and 7,000 tons higher than the 1990 levels, it is estimated that it would have been 137,000 metric tons without the conservation program. In 1997, Gilette wanted to go further and became a partner in the Climate Wise Program. The purpose of this program is to help companies to identify and implement cost-effective projects to reduce GHG emissions. Then, Gilette submitted a Climate Wise Action Plan focusing on energy efficiency programs, supply chain conservation initiatives, co-generation projects, fuel switching, and transportation. The goal was a reduction of the company’s GHG emissions by 23,000 metric tons by the year 2000.

A good example of this is the actions taken by Gilette in Mexico. Indeed, Gilette has important manufacturing and sales operations in Mexico City, where it recently completed a multi-faceted program of warehouse consolidation, shipping route analysis and redesign, truck fleet changes, and revamped operations procedures. The company analysed the environmental impact of these changes and found a 20% average savings in fuel consumption. The fuel savings translated into an estimated 2.5 million-pound reduction of CO2 emissions from Gilette trucks. As we saw, the industry is widely responsible for climate change. Some of them have already taken action to reduce their direct or indirect GHG emissions and found competitive advantages by doing so.

Nonetheless, these companies are not numerous. Thus, the solution to the problem is to give companies incentives to reduce their emission level. These incentives can come from international regulations, but we saw that they have not been very effective and rather slow so far. The problem is a political problem about global governance. It is thought that the creation of a World Environmental Organisation (WEO), as a par to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) might be beneficial to the international regulation process.

However, it is not done yet, and the Kyoto Protocol is currently threatened. It has been even more endangered with the recent declaration of George W. Bush, saying that the United States will not ratify the treaty. And we know that the US plays an important role in global warming as they emit 25% of worldwide GHGs whereas they only count for 4% of the population on Earth. The second way to give incentives to companies to reduce their emission is through customer demand for ‘green’ products. In fact, Bush was so odious that the international community condemned its position and since, global concern about environmental issues has never been so strong. Thus, the non-ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the US will perhaps have an opposite effect of what Bush was expecting for the American economy, as consumers might demand greener products in the near future.

If Bush had taken basic marketing courses, he would know that today, customers are kings and companies are very focused at providing them exactly what they want. Companies are more concerned about customers than politics. By the way, reducing GHG emission might not be as harmful for the economy as Bush thinks, considering examples like Gilette. Thus the solution of the climate change issue might come rather from consumers than politics. That is why NGOs have to play an important role today by publicising the issue to the global community in accord with the famous slogan ‘think globally act locally’.

2497 words Bibliography Bibliography Web sites www.guardian.co.uk www.lemonde.fr www.sovereignty.net www.unfccc.org www.ipcc.ch www.bsr.org www.gilette.com (1998 Report on the Environment, Health and Safety) Books French, Hillary, 2000. Coping with ecological globalization (State of the world 2000) White, Brian Richard Little, and Michael Smith, 1997. Issues in World Politics, Chap. 11: Vogler, John. Environment and Natural Resources. London: MacMillan Press Ltd Articles Elliot, Larry. ‘After the failure of international nerve at The Hague, it is surely time to set up new global institutions’. The Guardian, Nov.

29, 2000 O’Neill Packard, K. and Reinhardt, F. ‘What every executive needs to know about Global Warming’. Harvard Business Review, July-August 2000. pp. 129-135 ‘On Thin Ice – Cold feet and hot air on Global Warming’. World Press Review, February 2001: – Petitjean, Gerard.

‘The 21st Century: Hot, Hot, Hot’. Le Nouvel Observateur, Paris, France, Nov. 23, 2000. – Radford, Tim. ‘A Grim Picture’. The Guardian, London, England, Nov.

15, 2000. – Joku, Harlyne. ‘Sea Levels Rising’. Gemini News Service, London, England, Nov. 3, 2000.

Business Essays.

Global Warming

During the first 2 million years of the United States’ history, the human population was a minor element in the world ecosystem, with at most 10 million members. One Hundred thousand years ago, with the dawning of the Stone Age, the number of human beings began to increase more rapidly. The relative balance before these times gave way when the human population developed methods of agriculture and animal breeding. This enabled them to stay in one location upon the earth instead of searching for food.

Population growth during the 20th century was notably rapid. In 1994, the total world population was estimated at about 5.6 billion people. It increased nearly 4 billion people during the 20th century. The most significant world trend shows that death rates are currently decreasing due to recent technology, allowing people to live longer and better. However, the birth rates are increasing in poor countries, and decreasing in wealthy nations, causing the population to increase. “Eighty-eight percent of the world’s population takes place in Third world countries. More than a billion people today are paid less than one hundred and fifty dollars a year, which is less than the average American earns in a week” (Microsoft Encarta). This causes the majority of poorly paid people to come to the United States of America in search of a better life. This leads to a question that is being discussed by the presidential candidates, and also many congressmen who are running for election in their states. Should America open its borders to attract more workers to our prosperous economy?
More than 1 million people are entering the U.S. legally every year. From 1983 through 1992, 8.7 million people of these immigrants arrived on American soil, the highest of any decade since 1910. A record 1.8 million was granted permanent residence in 1991. Due to our present law in the United States, that stresses family unification, these arrivals can bring over their spouses, sons, and daughters; adding up to 3.5 million waiting in line to come to America. Latin America’s population is now 390 million (Censuses 1990). This number is projected to be over eight hundred million by the year 2005. Mexico’s population has tripled since World War II. One third of the population of Mexico is under 10 years of age. The effects of this, are, within ten years Mexico’s unemployment rate will increase over 30 percent. Reports show that in 1990, an estimated 4 million illegal aliens entered the United States, more that 50 percent of which were from Mexico. Our border control program allegedly arrests 300 illegal immigrants per day. For every one that we catch two immigrants escape into our country unnoticed.

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In the 2000 election immigration is one of many issues of each candidate. However, it is not one to ignore because it will affect our nation a great deal in the up and coming future. Presidential candidate George W. Bush is proposing these ideas to our nation:” a 500 million-dollar cut to INS application time to 6 months. Welcome Latinos; immigration is not a problem to be solved. Make INS more “immigrants friendly”. High tech: More H-1B worker visas; less export controls. Farm policy: Open markets abroad; more H-2A worker visas. Latinos enrich us; family values go past Rio Grande. More border guards to compassionately turn away Mexicans. Guest workers, maybe; citizenship waiting period, yes.” (www.issues2000.com) George Bush favors immigration however, he opposes immigrants escaping into our country illegally. “”We will bring to the INS a new standard of service and a culture of respect,” Bush said. The new spending, to be doled out over five years, is the latest part of an INS overhaul plan that Bush’s campaign believes will resonate with Latino voters. ‘We’ve got an INS that is too bureaucratic, too stuck in the past.” “(www.es2000GeorgeBush.com) On the other side of the spectrum Al Gore believes immigrants shall be granted; “Citizenship for 1.2million cleared backlog, but sacrificed quality. More immigrants to alleviate labor shortage. Immigrants from communist Cuba are different; Immigration leads to diversity and cultural tolerance.” (www.issues2000) Both presidential candidates believe and acknowledge that there is a problem, and recognize limits need to be set to regulate and discourage illegal immigration into the U.S.

Congressman of Ohio including Mike DeWine, John McCallister, and Ted Celeste each have differing opinions on the issue of immigration. Mike DeWine has voted “Yes” on all issues concerning immigrants in the United States. He favors limits to make immigrants work while they earn their VISA for citizenship. He believes that immigration adds a variety to our society. In his opinion, it will help the economy prosper by filling up jobs other will refuse to do. “It is a “win-win” situation for both sides.” (www.issues2000MikeDewine.com) Ted Celeste another congressman for Ohio is in favor of all bills to help regulate and prevent illegal immigration. John McCalister a Libertarian opposes all forms of immigration into the U.S.

Studies show that a majority of illegal immigrants apply for and receive benefits from the government that American citizens need. According to Donald L. Huddle, an economist at Rice University in Texas, “legal and illegal immigrants cost the nation a net 42.5 billion dollars in 1992.” The Huddle study also found that in 1992, illegal immigrants displaced more than 2 million Americans from their jobs. This resulted in an additional 11.9 billion dollars in public assistance to provide money for the people who lose their jobs to illegal immigrants. In California, immigrants cost more than 18 billion dollars a year. California currently has an estimated 300,000 illegal immigrants now attending grades’ K-12. This will costs the California taxpayers an estimated 1.5 billion dollars. Ten percent of the students currently enrolled in our elementary schools today are illegal aliens! California has 49.8 percent of the countries illegal aliens; therefore, California pays multiple costs for its permeable borders to many looking to improve their way of life, causing our economy to be depleted of useful and qualified individuals.

When adding the numbers of legal and illegal immigrants, 50 percent of all U.S. population growth comes from immigration. While Americans try to have smaller families, immigration threatens our nation. If immigration rates remain this high, more than seventy million people will be added to the United States population in just fifty years, with no end in sight. We are taking in more people than all of the rest of the world combined. As have all the other countries of the world, America needs to control its borders in a way that will actually prevent illegal immigrants from crossing the border illegally. As every house needs a door, so every country needs a border. And yet, our borders are full of holes. We have clearly lost control over our future. My children and your children will pay the price of uncontrolled immigration.

In 1990 Congress again modified existing immigration legislation. The Immigration Act of 1990 established an annual ceiling of 700,000 immigrants for each of the following three years and a maximum of 675,000 per year thereafter. Refugees, who were entering the United States annually, were not covered by the act. Reprieve was extended to the undocumented family members of those who had taken advantage of the amnesty provision of the 1986-immigration act and had taken the necessary and proper steps to become U.S. citizens. While family members of U.S. citizens remained the largest category of immigrants, the act established a separate annual quota of 140,000 for immigrants with job skills needed in the United States. Responding to pressure from various groups, the 1990 act granted annual quotas of 40,000 to 55,000 dollars to countries that had sent few immigrants in recent years. For three years, Ireland was given 17,000 of those dollars. Individuals who invested over 1 million in business enterprises of the United States, created jobs for U.S. citizens, who also received preferential treatment from the United States government. Special consideration was granted to political refugees escaping from countries with dictatorship governments.

In 1996 Congress passed the “Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act.” The act made it easier to deport aliens attempting to enter the United States without proper documents. It expanded the number of crimes for which immigrants can be deported. The act severely restricted the right of immigrants to appeal decisions made by the government to the federal courts. “The 1996 act also established an income test for those attempting to bring family members from abroad to the United States. Under the provisions of the act, a person sponsoring a family member is required to earn at least 125 percent of the poverty threshold, the annual income required to maintain an adequate standard of living according to the U.S. Census Bureau.”(www.aila.com) Illegal immigrants who remain in the United States for more than six months are barred from re-entering the country for three years. Illegal immigrants who remain in the United States for a year or more are banned for ten years from re-entering the United States borders. In 1996 Congress also implemented a welfare-reform bill that restricted legal immigrants from receiving subsidies for food, known as food stamps. The act also denied social security benefits to legal immigrants who had not worked in the United States for at least 10 years. In 1997 Congress rescinded some of these measures, voting to restore disability compensation benefits and to exempt thousands of Central American refugees from deportation.
Supporters of immigration use many arguments to support their side. Let’s look at a few of these arguments: Illegal immigrants take jobs few Americans want. The fact is that the average illegal immigrant arrested in Denver, Colorado, made more than seven dollars an hour. “Many were making over 100 dollars per day. Denver identified 43 illegal aliens making 100 dollars per day as roofers, while 438 people were registered in their employment services who would have loved those jobs. The average illegal immigrant arrested in Chicago makes $5.65 an hour.” More than thirty million American workers make less than that. A common belief is that aliens fulfill many of the least desirable jobs. However, most experts agree that in today’s economy, there is no shortage of Americans competing for many of these same jobs. Actually, many Americans already work in these low-paying jobs. For example: the poor black man who works as a steelworker, his boss asked him to train a new employee, an illegal immigrant. As soon as he finished training, he was fired. His position, of course, went to the illegal immigrant, who was willing to work for less pay, and under deplorable working conditions. This is one example of how illegal workers depress wages, and slows, stall or prevent unions from forming or improvements to working conditions.

The reason for my position on this issue is that each day I hear stories of all the trouble immigrants have caused our nation. Especially illegal immigrants because they are trespassing onto our country, without the thought of doing it the correct way. All immigrants do is take jobs away from other qualified American citizens, just to save the employer money by hiring an illegal immigrant. They have no respect for such a wonderful and lovely nation. America is the greatest country on earth; we should allow only the elite and ones who deserve to join our nation. We should not allow just anyone who applies for a VISA, this is the United States people must earn and work to earn their citizenship and right to be an American.



Bibliography
“Immigration into the United States.” March 1994, Online. Road Runner, October14 2000. Available @ http://www.immigrationassciates.com.

“Immigration.” January 1990; Online. Road Runner, October 16 2000. Available @ http://www.issues2000.com.

“Immigration within our borders.” September 28 1996; Online. Road Runner. Available @ http://www.aila.org
“US Visa Consultants Ltd.” February 1992; Online. Road Runner, October 16 2000. Available @ http://www.autek.com/usuisa/
Handlin, Oscar. Immigration. “Microsoft Encarta 1997.” Copyright 1997.

Jouar, Jim. Immigration. “Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996” Copyright 1996.

Global Warming

Global Warming Global Warming The beginning of the Industrial Revolution brought many new, exciting inventions into our lives to simplify our lives and made them more efficient. Such inventions included cars, household appliances and plants that burn solid waste, fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal, and wood and wood products for fuel. Before the Industrial Revolution, human activities caused very few gases to be released into the atmosphere, but now scientists say, through the burning of fossil fuels, a large population growth and deforestation, humans are affecting the mixture of gases in the atmosphere. This mixture of gases in the atmosphere is causing the worldwide problem known as Global Warming. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the earth has a natural “greenhouse effect” which is caused by energy from the sun controlling the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface. In response to the sun, the earth radiates energy back into space. Atmospheric greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, trap the energy leaving the earth and retaining it as heat, much like a greenhouse ceiling.

This is a natural and necessary effect, without it temperatures on earth would be much lower than they are now and life as it is today would not be possible, but with the greenhouse effect the earth’s average temperature is a more comfortable and life-supporting 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The problems that have arisen with the greenhouse effect have occurred due to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases. The EPA reports that data collected over the last 100 years shows that the average land surface temperature has risen between .8 and one degree Fahrenheit, precipitation has increased around one percent over the globe and the sea level has risen approximately 6-8 inches, approximately 1-2 inches of the rise caused by melting mountain glaciers and another 1-4 inches has resulted from the expansion of the ocean water as a result of the warmer ocean temperatures. Scientists believe that the increase in greenhouse gas concentration, especially of carbon dioxide, is being caused by the combustion of fossil fuels and other human activities. Fossil fuels burned to run cars and trucks, heat homes and businesses, and power factories are responsible for about 98% of the total U.S.

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emission of carbon dioxide, 24% of the methane emissions and 18% of nitrous oxide emissions. Also contributing a significant share of emissions is the increase in agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining. Scientists predicted that in 1997 the United States was responsible for the emission of about one-fifth of the total global greenhouse gases. The total amount of future emissions depends on a range of factors, such as demographic, economic, and technological policy and institutional developments, making it difficult to estimate future emissions. Despite the difficulty scientists have made some predictions; they predict that by the year 2100, without emissions control policies, carbon dioxide concentrations will be 30-150% higher than they are today.

Scientists also expect that the earth’s average surface temperature could ride 1.6 – 6.3 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100. It is also expected that the sea level is likely to rise two feet along most the U.S. coast. Today, according to the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), for every one person out of the six billion people on Earth, almost six tons of carbon dioxide re released into the atmosphere each year. Because of human activities, the atmospheric concentration of this greenhouse gas has risen by over 30% over the last 250 years.

According to the EDS, people can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases being mixed into the atmosphere. Using public transportation, walking or biking to school or work, or if you must drive, join a carpool and use a car that gets high mileage are suggested to lower carbon dioxide levels. The EDS also recommends using energy-efficient appliances in your house, weatherizing your home and using renewable energy sources, like solar heat or wind power. Natural gas releases the least amount of carbon dioxide and therefore is recommended to replace coal and oil in power plants and factories. Climate change, such as global warming, is a global problem that requires actions of improvement from the entire international community.

According to the EPA countries from around the world, including the United States, are working together to share technologies, experience, resources and talent to lower total greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the threat of global warming. These efforts, commonly referred to as Technology Cooperation, can occur between nations, private entities, and organizations around the world. International efforts are in progress to try to establish practices for land use, land use change and forestry to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sinks. Locally, according to the EPA, cities and states around the U.S. are preparing or have already prepared greenhouse gas inventories, and are currently pursuing programs and policies that are hoped to result in the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

The Union of Concerned Scientists, UCS, explains that one of the most important actions that need to be taken at any level is the amount of fossil fuels burned for energy at any level. It is suggested by many organizations that natural gases should replace other fuels such as coal, oil and gasoline, and that we should still limit the burning of even natural gases. It is also suggested that the government should create car-less cities, where citizens can only walk, ride bikes or use public transportation to get around inside the city. Yet another suggestion is to require citizens to drive electric cars, or electric hybrid cars, to reduce the amount of pollution put into the atmosphere by driving. A less popular action would be to limit the amount of gasoline available to each citizen over a certain amount of time, making them unable to contribute any more pollutants than anyone else is allowed.

Transportation is not the only area where action can be taken, household appliances, heating or cooling equipment, consumer electronics, or office equipment also have an affect on the environment. According to the Consumer Federation of America Foundation, CFAF, the average home causes more air pollution than the average car. The CFAF also states that a household that buys “energy efficient equipment” instead of standard new equipment can considerably lower the emissions of carbon dioxide over the lifetime of the appliances, that is a pollution savings comparable to taking a car off the road for seven years. As well as lowering the amount of pollutants being put into the air, citizens can reduce their energy bills by around 30% by replacing their home appliances by energy efficient products in their home. Individuals can make a big difference in global warming also. Citizens can get involved with organizations to attract the attention of the government as well as following a couple of the suggestions made above.

People can drive less, or use more efficient cars, smoke less, even cigarette and pipe smoke are pollutants, and replace their appliances and household products with more energy efficient ones. Global warming is a problem, and it won’t go away without the cooperation of the world and it’s inhabitants. Environmental Issues.

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