Human Growth And Development

.. tic, scrupulous, and persevering. 77. continuity theory: view that people tend to cope with daily life in late adulthood in essentially the same ways they coped in earlier periods of life. 78. continuity- discontinuity issue: issue concerned with whether a developmental phenomenon follows a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts.

79. conventional level: second level of reasoning in Kholbergs theory, where moral reasoning is based on societys norms. 80. convergent thinking: using information to arrive at one standard and correct answer. 81. cooing: early vowel-like sounds that babies produce.

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82. cooperative play: play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role; begins at about 2 years of age. 83. coping: attempts to deal with stress. 84. corpus callosum: thick bundle of neurons that connects the 2 hemispheres.

85. correlation coefficient: statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relation between 2 variables. 86. correlation study: investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world. 87. cross-linking: theory of aging in which some proteins interact randomly with certain body tissues, such as muscles and arteries.

88. cross sectional studies: research design in which people of different ages are compared at one point in time. 89. crowd: large group including many cliques that have similar attitudes and values. 90.

crowning: appearance of the top of the babys head during labor. 91. crying: state in which a baby cries vigorously, usually accompanied by agitated but uncoordinated movement. 92. crystallization: first phase in Supers theory of career development, in which adolescents use their emerging identities for ideas about careers. 93.

crystallized intelligence: knowledge acquired through experience and education in a particular culture. 94. cultural conservator: status of grandparents whose grandchildren live with them to learn the native ways. 95. culture-fair intelligence tests: intelligence tests devised using items common to many cultures. 96.

date (acquaintance) rape: when someone is forced to have sexual intercourse with someone they know. 97. death anxiety: refers to the fact that people are uncomfortable thinking about their own death. 98. deductive reasoning: drawing conclusions from facts; characteristic of formal operational thought.

99. dementia: family of diseases involving serious impairment of behavioral and cognitive functioning. 100. demographers: people who study population trends. 101. dendrite: end of the neuron that receives information; it looks like a tree with many branches. 102.

deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA): molecule composed of four nucleotide bases that is the biochemical basis of heredity. 103. dependent variable: behavior that is observed after other variables are manipulated. 104. depression: disorder characterized by pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability, and low self-esteem.

105. differentiation: distinguishing and mastering individual motions. 106. diffusion status: identity status in which adolescents do not have an identity and are doing nothing to achieve one. 107. disorganized(disoriented) attachment: relationship in which infants dont seem to understand whats happening when they are separated and later reunited with their mothers. 108. dispositional praise: praise that links a childs altruistic behavior to an underlying altruistic disposition.

109. divergent thinking: thinking in novel and unusual directions. 110. divided attention: performing more than one task at a time. 111.

dizygotic twins: result of the fertilization of two separate eggs by two sperm; also called fraternal twins. 112. docility: when people allow the situation to dictate the options they have. 113. dominance hierarchy: ordering of individuals within a group in which group members with lower status defer to those with greater status.

114. dominant: form of an allele whose chemical instructions are followed. 115. dream: as related to vocational development, a vision of ones career. 116.

dysphoria: feeling sad or down; the most prominent symptom of depression. 117. ecological theory: view that human development cannot be separated from the environmental contexts in which development occurs. 118. ectoderm: outer layer of the embryo that will become the hair, outer layer of skin, and the nervous system. 119. ego: according to Freud, the rational component of the personality; develops during the first few years of life.

120. egocentrism: difficulty in seeing the world from anothers point of view; typical of children in the preoperational period. 121. ego resilience: powerful personality resource that enables people to handle midlife. 122. electroencephalogram(EEG): pattern of brain waves recorded from electrodes that are placed on the scalp.

123. embryo: term given to the zygote once it is completely embedded in the uterine wall. 124. emotionality: aspect of temperament that refers to the strength of the infants emotional response to a situation, the ease with which that response is triggered, and the ease with which the infant can be returned to a non-emotional state. 125.

empathy: experiencing another persons feelings. 126. encapsulated: result of the processes of thinking becoming connected with the products of thinking. 127. endoderm: inner layer of the embryo, which will become the lungs and the digestive system. 128. environmental press: number and type of physical, interpersonal, or social demands that environments make on people.

129. epigenetic principle: view in Eriksons theory that each psychosocial stage has its own period of importance. 130. equilibriation: according to Piaget, a process by which children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium when disequilibrium occurs. 131. estrogen-related symptoms: symptoms associated with the climacteric and menopause, including hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and urine leakage that are due to the drop in estrogen.

132. ethology: branch of biology concerned with adaptive behaviors that are characteristic of different species. 133. eugenics: effort to improve the human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by a society mate and pass along their genes. 134. euthanasia: practice of ending a life for reasons of mercy. 135.

exchange theory: view that marriage is based on each partner contributing something to the relationship that the other would be hard-pressed to provide. 136. exosystem: according to Bronfenbrenner, social settings that influence ones development even though one does not experience them first hand. 137. experiment: systematic way of manipulating factors that a researcher thinks cause a particular behavior. 138.

explicit memory: conscious and intentional recollection of information. 139. expressive style: language-learning style that describes children whose vocabularies include many social phrases that are used like one word. 140. extended family: family in which grandparents and other relatives live with parents and children.

141. external aides: memory aides that rely on environmental resources, such as notebooks or calendars. 142. extraversion: dimension of personality in which an individual thrives on social interaction, likes to talk, takes charge easily, readily expresses opinions and feelings, likes to keep busy, has seemingly unending energy, and prefers stimulating and challenging environments. 143. extremely low birth weight: newborns who weigh less than 1,000 grams (2 pounds).

144. familial mental retardation: form of mental retardation that does not involve biological damage but represents the low end of the normal distribution of intelligence. 145. family life cycle: a series of relatively predictable changes that families experience. 146. fast mapping: fact that children make connections between new words and referents so quickly that they cant be considering all possible meanings. 147. fetal alcohol syndrome: disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant.

148. fetal medicine: field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth. 149. fictive grandparenting: style that allows adults to fill in for missing or deceased grandparents, functionally creating the role of surrogate grandparent. 150. filial obligation: sense of responsibility to care for a parent if necessary. 151.

fine motor skills: motor skills associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects. 152. fluid intelligence: abilities such as thinking in a flexible, adaptive manner, drawing inferences, and understanding relations between concepts. Psychology.