Introduction

Introduction Peripheral Devices A Peripheral device is any external device attached to a computer. Without Peripherals a computer is just a box full of wires, transistors and circuits, which is able to: – 1. Respond to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. 2. Execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program). The only problem being that without any input Peripherals you cannot tell the computer to do any of the above processes, and if you could, without an output device of some kind, the computer has no way of delivering the result to the user! Examples of peripherals include printers, disk drives, display monitors, keyboards, and mice etc.

These can be separated into two categories: – Input devices An input device is any machine that feeds data into a computer. For example, a keyboard is an input device. Input devices other than the keyboard are sometimes called alternate input devices. Mice, trackballs, and light pens are all alternate input devices. Output devices An output device is any machine capable of representing information from a computer.

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This includes display screens, printers, plotters, and synthesizers. C.P.U. Central Processing Unit Section One Developments in Peripherals in the Last Few Years There have been many advances in the field of Peripherals over the last few years. Even the humble keyboard and mouse have been re-invented to produce the Ergonomic keyboard and the cordless and laser mouse. There have also been advances in monitors such as flat screen displays and LCD screens. But there have also been advances in technology, which although not new, have been made available for home use such as the digital camera, scanners, digital video camera and the colour printer.

To look at some of the advances in detail we should put them into their categories. Output Devices Printers Printers have developed from the daisy wheel printer to the thermal printers of today. Other advancement in printers have been the laser printer (Same technology as photocopiers) which is used commonly in offices as it produces very high quality text and graphics Voice recognition.

Introduction

tqm
One of the most important industries overall is the food industry. The
food industry consists of everything from food processing plants to fast
food restaurants. The food industry affects nearly every living person.
Most people don’t realize how important this industry is and how it affects
their everyday lives. That is why it is so critical that the products of
this industry are at their highest quality, are free of bacteria and ensure
that the consumer will not face any detrimental consequences. Total Quality
Management (TQM) plays a big role in promising these results.
Total Quality Management seems to be a confusing term for the layman. TQM
is a philosophy advocated by Dr. Edward Deming, a world renowned quality
guru. It was widely accepted by Japan from 1950 onward. They used this
principle for continuous refinement of an organization-wide quality system.
Since then many organizations around the world have adopted TQM or similar
methodologies. There have been many successes and many reported failures.
Success of the system depends on the total commitment of the people to
quality from top to bottom within the organization. TQM implementation is
based on team work and the philosophy of continuous improvement. Statistics
need to be used extensively to analyze and reduce the variation in the process.
In the food industry, continuous improvement is vital to the survival of a
specific company or restaurant. The customer is constantly purchasing the
products of competitors and any decline in quality will equal a decrease in
gross profits. There are several areas that a restaurant may focus on for
quality improvement such as menu offerings, hospitality, service,
cleanliness, and over all food quality. All of these aspects will be
covered in this paper concerning Total Quality Management.
Summary
Employee ; Product Quality
Various well known companies such as Ritz-Carlton Hotels and Taco Bell have
implemented Total Quality Management programs in an effort to increase
quality and market share. Ritz-Carlton of Kansas City, Missouri, recently
revamped menu selections for its rooftop-level restaurant and bar operation.
This came about through customer surveys, focus-group studies of local
restaurant patrons, employee opinions, and market analysis. This began with
the general manager, Norm Howard, as TQM must start at the top to be
successful. He states that “It TQM is about listening to your customers
and empowering your employees to participate in important business
decisions” (Stephenson, 1993).
Taco Bell, with the implementation of a Total Quality Management system,
has improved its speed of service, friendliness of service, and value for
money ratings. This company has done this by empowering employees and
seeking customer input. By integrating their employees into the system,
Taco Bell has also decreased employee turnover by 63% (Stephenson, 1993).
According to the article “TQM: Making it Work for You,” there are six areas
that need to be focused on (Stephenson, 1993). The first area is measuring
quantitative results of various surveys and studies and basing future
decisions strictly on these outcomes. This information could come from
something as simple as a comment card, but these cards must tell the
business more than what was good and bad, but why.
The second area to be focused on is empowering the employees. Allowing the
employees to be involved in the team effort. Make the employees feel
responsible for their actions and allow the employees to fix their problems.
This is where many franchises lack, making it the manager’s responsibility
to fix the problems that the employees create. If management treats
employees in a respectable manner, the employee will turn around and treat
the customer with respect also.
Avoiding errors is the third area that needs to be focused on. The main
focus of a Total Quality Management program is to eliminate errors before
they can occur. Systems cause about 80% of all errors, so if the system is
error free, then the employee has a lesser chance of making mistakes.
Next comes the integration of management into the process. Total Quality
Management implies that management must be 100% in favor of the program, or
else the employees will not respond properly. Employees will follow the
lead of the management team.
Last is to do what the customer want, as tells the aphorism “The customer
is always right.” This is the same principle. There is no sense in serving
only fried chicken if the customers demand a more health conscious baked or
grilled chicken. “Customers are not only the people who walk through the
doors looking for a meal but also your suppliers and employees” (Stephenson,
1993).
Health & Safety Quality
Total Quality Management does not just deal with product quality, but all
around, or total quality. Another area that quality needs to be
continuously improved in is health and safety. Sky Chefs, an airline
caterer recently came to the conclusion that their workers’ comp. Costs were
skyrocketing, so they incorporated their Total Quality Management program to
help solve these health and safety problems (Kay, Murphy, Harris, 1994).
The main reason for business is profit, and if workers’ comp. Costs are at
unacceptable levels, that cuts out profit.
Initially, the program focused on injury prevention and set a goal of
reducing workers’ compensation costs by 50% in three years. Task teams were
initiated to collect data on estimated future loss, loss sources and medical
treatment patterns which would be evaluated and used to eliminate hazardous
areas of operation. They also gathered qualitative data on employee and
management attitudes and beliefs, current policies which focus on potential
hazards, and the physical environment. With this data, changes were made
and continuously updated with Sky Chef reaching their goal of a 50% decline
in less than 18 months (Kay, Murphy, Harris, 1994).
The teams developed several guidelines for improvements as follows:
Incorporate safe work practices into standard work processes;
Involve line workers in all aspects of process improvement, particularly
safe work practices;
Integrate and continuously improve post-injury management processes;
Communicate concern for employees;
Create a unified data base that could deliver timely, useful information to
line managers;
Review vendors objectively and thoroughly;
Institute criteria and time-based medical care and disability management;
Implement a comprehensive modified duty program;
Create a single managerial focus for loss prevention and work-related injury
management (Kay, Murphy, Harris, 1994).
By following these directives, a company could efficiently reduce workers’
compensation costs. They have earmarked this as the Concern, Awareness,
Responsibility, and Excellence program (C.A.R.E) which is a safety
communications program which involves and rewards the line employees for
committing safe acts (Kay, Murphy, Harris, 1994).
One aspect that these articles seem to have left out is the actual quality
of the product, the food. In food service classes and in the real world,
one form of Total Quality Management is known as the Hazard Analysis
Critical Control Point, or the HACCP system. This system was developed to
ensure zero defects during food handling by monitoring the whole preparation
process. Its purpose is to identify and correct errors before they happen.
The old method of quality assurance was to test the final product (TechniCAL
1996). If the product was not sufficient, it was either held, reprocessed,
or ultimately destroyed (TechniCAL 1996). This method

Introduction

.. ghts. He used his new studies as background information on the three types of action organization, cultural, social, and personality. He included the major problems of society and his structural-function views, how society’s parts work together to maintain social order. As his views formed, he received much controversy on his subjects because they were so broad and varied. Although, Parsons continued his studies and developed an even wider view over time. He thought of society as four main parts, which were specialized for their purposes.

He began using these examples for many studies in his later career. Also, Parsons looked at ancient civilizations as references. His study ran through the investigation of these societies and how they evolved to today’s people. He examined all aspects of society and tried to incorporate them into one social science. His studies continued at Harvard University until 1973, when he retired.

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Not much is said about his after life, but he may have continued his views on society. He was very controversial and had a broad view, however, he was still an extremely influential Sociologists and contributed a lot to the field. On May 8, 1979, Talcott Parsons died in Munich, Germany. Living a long life, Parsons achieved many goals and left his mark in Sociology. Historical Events While Parsons grew up, several historical events occurred. To begin, in 1903, the first working airplane was invented.

Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully invented a working airplane in December 1903. They flew this plane for thirty-seven miles around a town in Ohio, and it landed perfectly. The airplane was later used in WW1. Another main event that happened was World War 1. This war was fought from 1914-1918, while Parsons was a teenager.

During this segment, America, Great Britain, Russia, and France, fought against the German army in Europe. Simultaneously, America was battling Japan on the other side of the world. Both axis powers, Germans and Japanese, were trying to gain political control of other nations. In sociological history, there were two happenings that took place. Both losses were of the same subject and transpired around the same time.

In 1917, Emile Durkeim, a French sociologist who was known for his suicide study, died. Then, three years later, Max Weber passed away. Patricia Miller-Shaivitz claims that Max Weber was a German sociologist, who was recognized for his study on institutions. These were considered two big losses for sociology. Contributions to Sociology Talcott Parsons started with his assessment of other sociologists’ views.

He used these matters to form his own understanding on the subject and to create his theories. His views on social action and the social system created motion in the world of sociology. His works lead to Parsonianism, and they helped followers form their own theories on the matter. Parsons’ writing caused a lot of opposition in sociology, which helped arguing associates intervene with their thoughts. His first book made a base for his theses and attracted a lot of attention.

His supporters were formed and so was his Parsonian concept. His followers and concepts grew and widened. His notions created a big mark in sociology and in also other subjects. His views built a new way of thinking for other sociologists, leading to new subject matters and thoughts. With the release of Parsons’ second book, antagonism began stirring in sociology.

His works caused competitors to criticize, and this enticed them to construct thoughts to fight Parsons’ conception In turn, he developed theories that associates could use to make similar or diverse assumptions. Until now, his works still are used as basic views on society, and they help us understand specific subject matters. During his teachings at Harvard University, Talcott induced his and other views into the minds of many young students. So, you can say that he bread a strong herd of sociologists. Parsons assisted in the movement for a sociology department at Harvard and ran it for many years. This new department was where the elite sociologists learnt their basics and graduated as leading theorists. Parsons also merged three fields of study, anthropology and psychology with sociology, which is still used by modern day sociologists.

Even though he contributed in many other ways, Parson theories and views are still his main benefactions to sociology. Many people were interested in the action theory and his thoughts on social action, systems, evolution, and order, and people even ponder them nowadays. Encyclopedia Americana acknowledges that “His work will continue to capture our imagination and respect..” (480). Sociologists and theorists will be using his notions for a long time to come. My Reactions As I began to research Talcott Parsons, I could not realize why people, mostly in the social science field, respected him so much. With the little information I could secure, I started to learn more about his life, and why he was so admired.

I feel that people liked him because of his works, incorporating all aspects of society, and his contributions to society. His views looked at society’s different parts, and how they worked as a group to perform specialized tasks. People felt that as he was trying to understand society, Parsons was trying to help society. His views included the whole society and created a new chapter of sociology. Along with this, he helped sociology by making the field well known.

He was one person who started Harvard’s department of sociology, and he affiliated three main studies: anthropology, psychology, and sociology. All these factors influenced sociology and, therefore, made people honor Talcott Parsons. I would like to add that from the 50’s to 60’s, Parsons’ life and career was awfully complex. He was involved in many views on society, and he had numerous writings. I was not able to include that whole part of his life because it was too in depth and detailed.

However, I pointed out the major elements of that time frame. Also, information on the last ten years of his life was out of my grasp. It is either unknown or exceptionally hard to locate. Bibliography “Airplane.” n. pag. Online.

Internet. 20 Oct. 1998. Available http://encarta.msn.com/find/ default.asd?section=find Macionis, John J. Sociology: Sixth Edition. New Jersey: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Miller-Shaivitz, Patricia. “Major Theorists.” Palm Beach Community College. 9 Sept. 1998. Rossi, Ino. Structural Sociology.

New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. “Talcott Parsons.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1996. “Talcott Parsons.”The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 1996. “Talcott Parsons.” International Encyclopedia of Social Science.

1979. “Talcott Parsons: 1902–1979.” Biography: 1p. Online. Internet. 20 Oct.

1998. Available http://www.search.biography.com/print record.pl?id=18287 “Talcott Parsons (1902-1979).” Sociology at Hewett: 1 of 2p. Online. Internet. 19 Oct.

1998. Available http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/parson s.biog.htm “TSC: Talcott Parsons (1902-1979).” Social Research Cafe: 1 of 2 p. Online. Internet. 20 Oct. 1998.

Available http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/2147/parso ns.htm “World War 1.” Webster’s New World College Dictionary. 1997.

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