Islamic Religion Todays Muslims are branded as terrorists or fudamentalist. But their religion is a gentle religion. On the Arabian Penninsula, home of the Arabs, was isolated and they were able to develop their civilization without outside influences. It is about 1 million miles square, that is located between the Red sea and the Persian Gulf. There are two distinctive regions. The first has well-watered valleys between mountains and the second is arid plains and desert.
Grass grows quickly during the showes of the rainy season. In ancient times the Arabs were bedouin (nomads that hersed sheep, goats, and camels. and lived in tents made made of felt from camel or goat hair.) They ate fresh or dried dates and drank milk from their herds. On special occasions they ate mutlon. their tribes were made of related families.
They valued family ties becuase because they ensured they ensured protection and survival. They had a chief (sheikh). The sheikh ruled as long as the tribe allowed him. They had a counsil of elders. There was warfare over waterholes and pastures.
Their way of punishment is an eye for sn eye and a tooth for a tooth. To improve warrior skills they had camel and horse. They had story telling in frount of the campfire. They had poetry about battles, desert, camels, horses, and love. In 500 A.D.
they started a town called Makkah, which was fifty miles inland of the Red sea. Trade was mostly of animal producys for weopeans dates grains, spices, jewels ivory, silk, and perfumes. They had caravans travel there from as for china. Arabs had and worshipped many ditied business ties were replaceing family ties, and old tribal laws were not adequat Byzantine and the Persin armies were threatining to conquer them. The tribes had the some language but they had no central goverment, or sense of unity, The Arabs searched for new beliefs.
The prohet of Islam was muhammad. He was born in Makkah in 570 A. D. . He was orphaned at an early age and was adopted by his uncle.
He worked as a carovan leader on a trade route. He was know to be honest and able. His employer khadij’a ,a weakthy window if age 40, put him in charge of this business and proposed marriage to him. He went to a cave outside the city in 610 A.D. to pray and fast reveloution (vision) there. He was told to recite.
“Recite in the name of your lord, the creator who created man from clots of blood. Rwcite! Your lord os the most bountiful one who by the pen has taught mankind things they didn’t know.” His second vision to rise and worn people. In 613 A.D. he preached to his family and friends that there was one god. And all that belived in him are equal.The rich shared with poor lots of the converts were poor.
The rich merchants and the religious leaders did not like,Mushamad and the Muslims were persecuated. After some theats on his life in 632 A.D. he sent 60 families to Yathrib.And then follewes them in secret(Known then as the Hjrah immirgration). 622 A.D. os know on the Musslim calandar as the frist year.
Muhamad became the rules of Yathris then it was called Medinch al-Neb orMadinah ”the city of the priphet.”The Madinch Compact of 624 A.D. was the foundation of Islanie state. Muhamad was the Judge and commander in chief. Quxan was their bible of Ialam. They extended proection, to Jews and christiand who accepted Islams political authoriyt.
Makkems invaded Yathrib,and the Muslims fought in self defense.The Makkans were defeated. And the Muslims won support of the Arab groups outside of Madinsh. They later invaded Makkah and hod little resistance.They accepted Islamic Religion and Muhammad. Islanic Religion and Muhammed. They destroyed idols, and turned the shrine of prohet Abraham into a place of worship. Makkah was the spiritual capital and Mdinth into the political capital. In 631 A.D.
the Arabian Peninsula was supported by an army representing each of the Arab tribes. Muhammad later died at Madinah in 632 A.D. Beliefs The Quran was the divine messages from God over a peroid of 22 years. It was written down or memorized that was compiled into a written collection(Quran). is the final matters of faith and lifestyles.
It was written in Arabic. It is stories, teachings, and exhorations of what is written in the Bible. Values Basic Moral values in the Quran are similar to Christanity and Judasim.Murder, lying, stesling and adultury are condemened.Honor parents, protect wideous and orphans, show kindness to neighoors and give maney to the poor. They weren’t allowed to eat pork. drink alchol; gambaling. They have rules for marriage, disorce, family life businss prastices, and property inheritences.
Law is not seperated from religion. There is no rated in order of clergy. Sharii’ ah organization moral principles into a body of law. Based on Quren and Hadith ( sayings of Muhammad) covered all aspects of Muslism private and public lifes. Five pillars of Islam faith Confessions of faith: “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.” All Muslisms are requiered to submit to god’s will as given in the Quran.
Muhhammad role is stress in the Confession, that he is just the messenger and not devine. Musliums think that he is the last and the greatest of the Prophets. They see life as a preparation of Judgement Day. And when they rise from the grave, they will be judge dor their actions( heaven or hell). allah is also the god of the Jews, christans, Adam , Abraham, Moses, and Jeuses.
They are all given c onsider to be prophets. Musliums have great respect for the Bible, Judasim, and Christianity. They believe that the Arabs rea decendents of Ishmauel, son of Abraham. Prayer: They pray five times a day sunrise, noon, afternoon, sunset and evening facing Makkah using the same motion and words. They kneel, bow, and touch their foreheads to the ground (sign of submission). They pray no matter what.
Friday at noon in a mosque( shrine, court, school, and shelter). Imam(leader of the prayer) can be any male with the proper religous training. Alms are chartity done privately and a state tax. Fasting: Is in the month of Ramadan ( the ninth month of the Ariabian calander).They can not eat or drink from sunrise to sunset. After the fasting they have a three day feast. Children, sick and pregant women are excempt. Cannon sounds for the prayers.
Pilgemage- (Haji) everyone goes to Makkah at least once in their life. Once they go they are honored in their community. Haji is two months and ten days after Ramadum fast. They have three days of ceremony, prayer, and sacrifice. Now they worship at Kaaba, Nakkah, and madinah.
It is a visible expression of unity and an expression of ideas. Role of Women “Men are responsible for women”. Womens postion is largely defined by her relationship with her male relatives and Husbends. They stopped the tribusl killing of baby girls. They limited polygamy down to 4 wives. But they had to be equal to each other. Women had control over her own property and she could inhert property from her father and remarry.
Their lives are invested into the family and household. Muisana the wife of Mu’awiyat wrote: ” The coarse cloth woven in serenity of the desert Is more precious to me then lucuries robes of a Queen I love the bedouins tent, caressed by the murmuring breeze and standing amid boundless horizons, More than the glided halls of marble in their royal splender. I feel more at ease with my simple crust than with the delicies of the court; I prefer to rise early with the caravan Rather than to be inthe golden glare of the sumptous escourt. The barking of the a watchdog keeping away strangers Pleases me more than the sounds of the trbourine played by court singers; I prefer a desert cavlier, generous and poor To a fat lout inn purple living behind closed doors.” -Najib Ullah, Islamic literature Men Men were active in politics, army, bussiness, and fields. They went to the bath houses for relaxation and to work out. Boys entered school at age seven. They take writing and reading.
Which are Arab admires. They went to Madrasa ( theroloigical school) after they finished regular school. Houses They are plain with very little furnture. They used carpets, small objects of art, and pillows. They sat on the rug and used pillows to lean on.
During meals household members sit in a circle and ate from large trays of bread, fruits, and meats. Islamics Trade spices, textiles, glass, and carpets. Men met in bazaars ( market places) to converse and business. food was difficult to grow in alot of Islamic country. They Irragated, rotated, and fertilized land.
Large landowners who owned the more productive got grants from the goverment. they hire nearby farmers to help. They produced wheat, rice, beans, cucumbers, celery and perfume. Islamic scientest translate the scintfic books into Arbaic. They invented algebraand equations to define curves and lines. Their work in geometry lead to invention of trigometry. They accuratly predicted the solar eclipses.
they accuratly measured the circumfrence and size. they were unmatched until the 1990’s. They produce the most accurate maps of the eatern Hemesphere. They developed alchemy, the branch of science that try to convert iron into gold. al-Ruiz classfied chemical subsyances into animal, plant or mineral. He wrote a medical encyclepida and a handbook that told the differences betwees small poxs and measles.
Their knowledge of medicine was centuries ahead of the rest of the world. Bibliography Channing L. Bete Co., Inc., About Being an Eastern Catholic (booklet). South Deerfield, MA: Channing L. Bete Co., Inc., 1982.
Eliade, Mircea, The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987. . The New Encyclopdia Britannica (Micropdia), volume 10. Chicago: Encyclopdia Britannica, 1997.
The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997. Mahwah: The K-III Reference Corporation, 1996.