Martin Luther Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation: What it was, why it happened and why it was necessary. The Protestant Reformation has been called the most momentous upheaval in the history of Christianity. It was a parting of the ways for two large groups of Christians who differed in their approach to the worship of Christ. At the time, the Protestant reformers saw the church- the Catholic church, or the universal church- as lacking in its ways. The church was corrupt then, all the way up to the pope, and had lost touch with the people of Europe.
The leaders of the Reformation sought to reform the church and its teachings according to the Scriptures and the writings of the Apostles. They sought to simplify the church by returning to its roots, roots long lost by the Catholic church at the time, or so the reformers believed. After the fall of the Roman Empire, life in Europe declined rapidly into the Dark Ages. The Dark Ages were a time of misery and darkness. There were only two socioeconomic classes: the very rich nobility or the very poor peasants. Small kingdoms popped up everywhere, and were constantly at war with one another.
Whole libraries were destroyed, and the only people who remained literate were the clergy of the Christian church. Life became such a struggle to survive that, for a period of five hundred years, very little artwork or literature was produced by the whole of Europe. Eventually, around the year 1000, the conditions in Europe began to get better. This marked the beginning of the Middle Ages. The Crusades began as an effort to revitalize the spirits of the people.
However, things still weren’t very good. Plagues ravaged the land, carried by rodents and destroying whole villages. With this all around, the people began to talk of witches and devils and evil spirits. The religious stories of the time, as seen in the sculpture of every church built during this time period, was of the Last Judgement and the tortures of Hell. This was the time of tall, sweeping Gothic cathedrals adorned with gargoyles and devils. Everywhere the people looked, they saw death, and it became the sole thought in their minds- that and what came after death.
With the spreading literacy among the clergy and nobility of the times came new literature. For hundreds of ears the only literature that had existed were those books saved from the destruction of the Dark Ages by the church and the monasteries. Now, scholars began to write new books- all of it, of course, religious in nature. One of the most influential books of the time was The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis. The book gave clear and simple instruction for modeling a Christian spiritual life on that of Christ (The Volume Library, 1950.
However, the way that it did this was to present the mind set of a sober awareness of death and a general view that life is a veil of tears (Carmody, 331). While The Imitation was not the progenitor of the mood for the next several hundred years, it certainly contributed to it. Everything in life became a form of suffering in imitation of Christ. It soon became that even the tiniest act or motion during church service became a holy symbol of part of Christ’s pain. This was also the time of the greatest pilgrimages in history. People all over Europe travelled great distances to experience even the most insignificant of relics.
Soon, the possession of relics became a kind of competition between churches and monasteries, denoting their popularity and piety. With the collection of relics came an increase in the size and wealth of the church which housed them. This led to an obsession for money and materialism within the church, which grew tremendously over the next few hundred years. It went so far as the selling of indulgences, which was basically the buying off of one’s time spent in purgatory before ascending to heaven. As the Renaissance began, the clergy itself began collecting artwork and lavish decor not only for the church for their private offices. With this trend towards materialism came an obsession with the acts performed during Mass rather than what they represented.
Soon, everything in the service contained some kind of mystery which was supposedly known only to the priest but not to the common man. With the Mass still being said in Latin, which only the clergy knew, it was no wonder that this sense of mystery completely separated the church from its followers. The priests espoused complicated rituals, but did little teaching and enlightening of the general masses. As if this wasn’t bad enough, an amazing event put another spilt between the church and the people of Euope. The Great Schism, as it has been called.
The long line of corrupt popes arrived at the election of Bartolomeo Prigano, of which accounts differ widely among those cardinals present at the election. Controversy surrounded this election over whether Prigano had actually been elected pope or had merely been nominated to be the new pope. The cardinals left Rome and declared that the election was void and there currently was no leader of the church. Pope Clement VII- a relative of the French king- was elected by the cardinals, and he declared Prigano the anti-christ. The new pope took up residence in Avignon on the French border, and the corruption of the church grew even worse, becoming the scandal of Europe.
It was obvious that the church and its head were being manipulated by the French royalty, and all of Europe knew it. As time went on, popes came and went in both Avignon and Rome, with different parts of Europe claiming loyalties to different popes. Skirmishes broke out constantly. Finally, in 1409, the College of Cardinals met to discuss The Great Schism. Neither pope agreed to attend the meeting, just ashad happened with every other meeting of this kind, and neither side showed any signs of reconciliation.
The decision of the cardinals was to elect a third pope. Pope Alexander V and his successors tried to get the other two popes to back down to, no avail. The church was in turmoil, and Europe with it. In 1415, a national council took place between the major countries of Europe- France, Italy, Spain and Germany- called the council of Constance. The clergy from across the continent decided at this meeting, themselves being the greatest Christian authority of the time- so much that even the popes must abide by their decisions- that all three popes would be deposed and a new pope would be elected.
Though not immediately effective, the Council’s edict eventually took hold and the other popes dropped out of popularity. This ended The Great Schism, but not the atmosphere created by it. Caught up in its own disputes, the church had lost touch with its people, and simply unifying its leadership without altering its practices did little to change this. At the Council of Constance, as well as cleaning up the papacy, the subject of John Wycliffe and John Huss was brought up. Wycliffe had died many years earlier in 1384, but his views still persisted.
Wycliffe, who had been a professor at the University of Oxford, had argued for a church reform based on a return to the Scriptures- one of the most popular ideas of what was to become the Reformation movement. He argued for a downsized church because the Church, as the assembly of all the predestined, is invisible, and hence formal membership in the external, institutional ecclesiastical body is no guarantees of salvation (Dolan 125). He rejected the idea that the office of the pope was a divine institution, arguing that the characteristics of the person must be comparable to their originator, St. Peter, to be divine. Foremost of the needed characteristics was the love of Christ.
Wycliffe most notably differed with the rest of the Protestant reformers in his views of the eucharist. Throughout this time, the eucharist had had the importance of actually being the body of Christ during the ceremony. Wycliffe argued that it merely represented Christ symbolically and never actually changed substance at all. This idea took firm hold in the Reformation, despite Wycliffe’s mental instability which grew during the later part of life, in which he did such things as proclaim the pope the anti-christ. The more dangerous of the pair at the time of the Council was John Huss, former rector of theology at the University of Prague and the leader of the Czech reform movement.
His incessant and vocal protests of the church’s immorality and simony caused him to be excommunicated, but he still continued his preaching. The Council, after intense political maneuvering, managed to have Huss brought to them under the pretense of protection. When he learned of the Council’s intentions to trap him, Huss tried to escape. He was caught and labeled heresiarch- archbishop of all heretics. As he was being escorted out of the city, surrounded by tens of thousand of marchers, he began reciting Mass in German (not Latin, as was mandatory) and was burned on the spot as a heretic.
When the story was told of Huss’s refusal to recant even during his execution, the Reformation gained a great following because of his heroic martyrdom. These are but a few examples of the troubles of the period. As time went on, the church attempted to reunited with the Greek Orthodox branch after the fall of Constantinople to the Muslims in 1453. It met with some success politically, but little movement on the part of the actual Greek clergy. The succeeding popes began handling the church more like a political power, with its basis in the Vatican, than a religious force.
This tendency turned it away from the major heads of Europe and continued to plunge the papacy and the church into sinfulness, decadence and vulgar hypocrisy. The Renaissance was in full swing by the time Martin Luther entered into the limelight. Luther was not in any sense, on any subject, a systematic thinker.. Luther was hot and impatient (Hearnshaw 171). It was in 1505, at the age of 22, that he entered the novitiate of the Hermits of St. Augustine in Erfurt, Germany.
He stayed there longer than the prescribed year, and in 1507 …