Organic Chemistry

Homologous Series: An homologous series is a set of compounds whose components differ by a single repeating functional group. In the case of (straight chain) alkanes, CH2. Their general formula is CnH2n+2. The chemical properties of the individual members of an homologous series are similar and they show a gradual change in physical properties.


Hydrocarbons: Compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon. There are three types alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.

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A saturated molecule contains single covalent bonds only. An unsaturated molecule contains one or more multiple (double or triple) covalent bonds.


Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space. Structural Isomerism have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures, i.e. the atoms are bonded together in a different sequence.


Homolytic fission
The Bond breaks evenly with one electron from the bonding pair going to each atom A B This produces species with single electrons called free radicals. Free radicals are most commonly formed when the bond being broken has electrons that are fairly equally shared.

Heterolytic fission
In Heterolytic bond fission, when the bond breaks, both of the shared pair of electrons go to just one of the atoms. Heterolytic fission is more common where a bond is already polar.


Types of Organic Reactions: 4 types, Substitution; Addition; Elimination
Organic Reagents: An Electrophile is an electron deficient species which can accept an Electron pair to form a covalent bond. Electrophile means, literally, electron loving.’ A Nucleophile is an electron rich species, which can donate an electron pair to form a covalent bond. Nucleophile means, literally, nucleus loving.’
(Electophilic) CH3 – Br (Nucleophilic)