Plato

Plato The most comprehensive statement of Platos mature philosophical views appears in The Republic, an extended approach to the most fundamental principles for the conduct of human nature. Using the character Socrates as a fictional spokesman, Plato considers the nature and value of justice and the other virtues as they appear both in the structure of society as a whole, and in the personality of an individual human being. This naturally leads to discussions of human nature, the achievement of knowledge, the distinction between appearance and reality, the components of an effective education, and the foundations of morality. Plato formulates a conception of the complexity of psychological motivation, and of the structure of mental conflict, which leaves the simplicities of Socratic intellectualism far behind, and one which has reminded interpreters of Freudian theory (413 Routledge Encyclopaedia) Because The Republic addresses so many issues, it can be read in several different manners: as a treatise on political theory and practice, as a pedagogical handbook, or as a defence of ethical conduct. The Republic as a whole invites us to share in Platos vision of our place within the ultimate structure of reality Imagining likely origins in the prehistorical past, Plato argued that societies are invariably formed for a particular purpose. Individual human beings are not self-sufficient; no one individual working alone can acquire all of the genuine necessities of life.

In order to resolve this difficulty, we gather together into communities for the mutual achievement of our common goals. This succeeds because we can work more efficiently if each of us specializes in the practice of a specific craft: I make all of the shoes; you grow all of the vegetables; she does all of the carpentry; etc. Thus, Plato held that separation of functions and specialization of labour are the keys to the establishment of a worthwhile society. The result of this original impulse is a society composed of many individuals, organized into distinct classes according to the value of their role in providing some component part for the common good. But the smooth operation of the whole society will command some additional services that become necessary only because of the creation of the social organization itself.

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The adjudication of disputes among members and the defence of the city against external attacks. Therefore, not only labourers are specialized but also the guardians and leaders of the state. Having developed a general description of the structure of an ideal society, Plato maintained that the proper functions performed by its disparate classes, working together for the common good, provide a ready account of the need to develop significant social qualities. Since the rulers are responsible for making decisions according to which the entire city will be governed, they must posses great reasoning skills, the capacity to comprehend reality, and the ability to make impartial judgments for the city. Soldiers, charged with the defence of the city against external and internal enemies, on the other hand, need the virtue of bravery. This entails, in accordance with other values, the willingness to carry out their orders in the face of danger without regard for personal risk. The remaining people of the city must follow the leaders instead of pursuing their private interests. They exhibit the subordination of personal desires to a higher purpose.

When each of these classes perform its own role appropriately and does not try to carry the functions of any other class, Plato held, the entire city as a whole will operate smoothly. Exhibiting the harmony that is genuine justice. The most comprehensive statement of Platos mature philosophical views appears in The Republic, an extended approach to the most fundamental principles for the conduct of human nature. Using the character Socrates as a fictional spokesman, Plato considers the nature and value of justice and the other virtues as they appear both in the structure of society as a whole, and in the personality of an individual human being. This naturally leads to discussions of human nature, the achievement of knowledge, the distinction between appearance and reality, the components of an effective education, and the foundations of morality.

Plato formulates a conception of the complexity of psychological motivation, and of the structure of mental conflict, which leaves the simplicities of Socratic intellectualism far behind, and one which has reminded interpreters of Freudian theory (413 Routledge Encyclopaedia) Because The Republic addresses so many issues, it can be read in several different manners: as a treatise on political theory and practice, as a pedagogical handbook, or as a defence of ethical conduct. The Republic as a whole invites us to share in Platos vision of our place within the ultimate structure of reality Imagining likely origins in the prehistorical past, Plato argued that societies are invariably formed for a particular purpose. Individual human beings are not self-sufficient; no one individual working alone can acquire all of the genuine necessities of life. In order to resolve this difficulty, we gather together into communities for the mutual achievement of our common goals. This succeeds because we can work more efficiently if each of us specializes in the practice of a specific craft: I make all of the shoes; you grow all of the vegetables; she does all of the carpentry; etc. Thus, Plato held that separation of functions and specialization of labour are the keys to the establishment of a worthwhile society.

The result of this original impulse is a society composed of many individuals, organized into distinct classes according to the value of their role in providing some component part for the common good. But the smooth operation of the whole society will command some additional services that become necessary only because of the creation of the social organization itself. The adjudication of disputes among members and the defence of the city against external attacks. Therefore, not only labourers are specialized but also the guardians and leaders of the state. Having developed a general description of the structure of an ideal society, Plato maintained that the proper functions performed by its disparate classes, working together for the common good, provide a ready account of the need to develop significant social qualities.

Since the rulers are responsible for making decisions according to which the entire city will be governed, they must posses great reasoning skills, the capacity to comprehend reality, and the ability to make impartial judgments for the city. Soldiers, charged with the defence of the city against external and internal enemies, on the other hand, need the virtue of bravery. This entails, in accordance with other values, the willingness to carry out their orders in the face of danger without regard for personal risk. The remaining people of the city must follow the leaders instead of pursuing their private interests. They exhibit the subordination of personal desires to a higher purpose.

When each of these classes perform its own role appropriately and does not try to carry the functions of any other class, Plato held, the entire city as a whole will operate smoothly. Exhibiting the harmony that is genuine justice.