Lesson 7
Short Answer
1.Define prevention. Provide an example of a behavior that helps prevent physical illness. Indicate reasons why prevention is difficult to do in practice.
Prevention is the best problem-solving solution. It is a risk-factor reduction behavior that can prevent stress and other health problems. For example, if lung cancer is painful for a patient and stressful to ones mind, the best solution to eliminate the potential pain and stress is to prevent smoking. Prevention is hard to do in practice because Type A people has less prevention behaviors, which Type A people is numerous. Another aspect is that many people dont have the idea to prevent the specific risk; after they are ill, they think back or blame why they hasnt prevent such risk. Especially for smoking, the addictive nicotine prevents the smokers from preventing the potential risk. Therefore, prevention is difficult to do in practice.
2.Describe the Type A behavior syndrome and its impact on health. Would you describe yourself as having this syndrome? Explain.
Type A behavioral pattern is a complex pattern of behaviors and emotions that includes excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience, and hostility. Type A people are often dissatisfied with some central aspect of their lives, are highly competitive and ambitious, and often are loners. The hostility increases the risk of coronary heart disease. I have this syndrome because I always feel extremely nervous in many things; even call someone that I dont know by phone to ask for some information will make me nervous.
3.Define burnout. Be sure to describe its syndromes and the conditions that seem to cause it.
Burnout is the syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, often experienced by workers in high-stress jobs. Sometimes the person that has burnout feels bad about him/herself and worry that he/she is failures. Burnout is correlated with greater absenteeism and turnover, impaired job performance, poor relations with coworkers, family problems, and poor personal health. It is caused by high stressing jobs, or the high-stress working environment, such as the medical workers in the hospital, or an officer that is threatened by organizational downsizing, job restructuring, or employees morale and loyalty.
4.Define stress. How is stress related to the process of cognitive appraisal?
Stress is the pattern of specific and nonspecific responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope. The stimulus events include a large variety of external and internal conditions, which are stressors. Cognitive appraisal of the stress situation interacts with the stressor and the physical, social, and personal resources available for dealing with the stressor. Individuals respond to threats on various levels physiological, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive.
5.Describe the fight-or-flight syndrome. Be sure to include physical changes that occur and factors that trigger this syndrome.
Fight-or-flight response is a sequence of internal activities triggered when an organism is faced with a threat. It prepares the body for combat and struggle or for running away to safety. The hypothalamus functions when there is an emergency when the threat comes to control the autonomic nervous system, and activate the pituitary gland. The main factors that trigger the fight-or-flight syndrome are the threats and stresses; the both factors make up a situation that the person has to fight, or fleet when it is over the persons capability. The body will change its state to be ready to fight or fleet, and the main characteristics are that breathing is faster and deeper, the heart beat rate increases, blood vessels constrict, and blood pressure rises. The facial expressions may show strong emotions and the digestion stops because of the muscle control by the brain.
6.Describe the general adaptation syndrome. Be sure to include the stages of this syndrome and the physical and behavioral changes that occur in each stage.
The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is the pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by almost any serious stressor. There are three stages of GAS alarm reaction, which is a brief period of bodily arousal that prepare the body for vigorous activity; resistance, a state of moderate arousal after a prolonged stressor, in which the organism can endure and resist further debilitating effects of prolonged stressors; and exhaustion, a period if the stressor is sufficiently long-lasting or intense, in which the bodys resources become depleted and the organism will become ill, or even die.
7.Identify and briefly describe the major sources of stress that people experience. Include your own example of each.
Major changes in life situations are the root of stress for many people. Every event may require major changes in ones routines and adaptation to new requirements. No matter an event is good or bad, once it changes ones life situation, it brings stress; what is the different between events is that how significant an event changes our life situation, and thus how significant the stress is. For example, the death of a close family member is one of the most stressful events because this changes ones life situation significantly; a change of college is a less stressful one since the life situation is not changed as much as the death of a close family member.
8.Compare and contrast problem-directed coping with emotion-focused coping.
The problem-directed coping changes stressor or ones relationship to it through direct actions and problem-solving activities, while emotion-focused coping changes oneself through activities that make one feels better but do not change the stressor. For example, fighting and fleeting are problem-direct coping; somatically or cognitively focused activities are emotion-focused coping.
9.Compare and contrast the processes of reappraising stressors and restructuring cognitions. Include your own example of each.
People should control the experience of stress in their lives in part by the way they appraise life events. Learning to think differently about certain stressors, to relabel them, or to imagine them in a less-threatening context is a form of cognitive reappraisal that can reduce stress. This restructures the cognitive response of the body that once a stressor comes, the mind will not unconditionally flee away from the stress; instead, it can have strength to fight against the stress. That is, Reappraising stressors means to re-evaluate the nature of the stressors and restructuring cognitions means to change the cognitive system to focus on the stressor rather than fleeing away from it.
10.Describe how aspects of our environment can affect how well we cope with stress. Include your own example of each.

Essay Questions
2.You are given one million dollars to reduce the number of deaths from cancer. How would you spend this money? Provide a rationale for the steps you would take.
The quality of life that people experience is one of the most important issues that I will concern. Quality of life refers to the impact that the disease and its treatments have on various aspects of peoples lives. This includes individuals emotions, social relationships, ability to work and to make use of leisure time, their capabilities for taking care of themselves or their homes, and their spiritual lives. Helping people adapt better to the side effects of cancer treatments, particularly chemotherapy. The side effects are painful weakness, dizziness, loss of appetite, disturbed sleep, nausea, and vomiting. To deal with the painful cancer, I will spend the one million dollars on buying a piece of land in the countryside, building a hospital, and the rest of the money is spent on hiring medical practitioners.
The reason why I will spend money on buying a land in the countryside and build a hospital there is that the natural environment is much more desirable; the countryside environment is comparatively better than that inside a busy city no noise from vehicles will bring less stress to the patients so that the patients can be much more relax than the busy lives in the cities, making them a better chance to coping with the cancers. Meanwhile, the natural environment provides a less-tense living style because some activities are not suitable in the city but suitable in the countryside, such as growing few crops for food or just for appreciation. Of course, there are medical practitioners in a hospital, so it is necessary to leave some money for hiring some.
In conclusion, my concept of coping with cancer is very simple: make the patients happy, and let them have psychological and mental strength to fight for their lives.
3.A friend complains that he/she is under a lot of stress and does not know what to do about it. Stressors in this persons life include financial problems, grades that are lower than expected, problems with parents, and the breakup of a serious relationship. He/she also is trying to juggle a full load of classes and a part-time job. What advice would you offer? Use the material in chapter 13 as the basis for your advice.
According to this introduction, I do believe this friend is under a great stress that I suggest that she should use both coping strategies problem-directing and emotion- focused coping to fight against the stress.
About the problem-directing coping, it changes the stressor or ones relationship to it through direct actions and problem-solving activities. It consists of fight, flight, seek options to fight or flight, and prevent future stress. The characteristic of this coping strategy is that the person can deal with the problem directly to eliminate the stress. So I suggest her using this strategy to deal with solvable problems. For example, she got unexpectedly low grades in exams, then she should change her major or her study style, or fundamentally study harder. This can directly deal with the problem itself and it is the easiest and the most effective way to do.
In terms of the emotion-focused coping, it changes self through activities that make one feel better but do not change the stressor. It includes somatically focused activities, cognitive focused activities, and therapy to adjust or unconscious processes that lead to additional anxiety. The main feature of this coping method is that it makes the person with stress to relax although the stress is unsolved. Therefore, this friend should use this method to fight against the stressors that are irretrievable. For example, her already-breakup of a serious relationship may mean to an end of the whole event, which should not be deeply and always be concerned at heart; no matter what she do, the relationship cannot be saved, then she should forget the pain of this relationship by planned distractions or a new fantasy, which are a part of emotion-focused coping. And, such as her struggle on studying and working, this is hard to deal with the situation because she may be need to have a job to pay for her study; in this way, again she cannot fight against or flee away from the problem and then she should use emotion-focused coping such as antianxiety medication or relaxation to solve the stress.

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