Radio becomes Americas second national mass medium after magazines
-99% of Americans homes have radios
-95% of Americans cars have radios
-40% of Americans listen to the radio between 6 am and midnight
-7% of Americas bathrooms have radios in them
Radio: A technological Leap
1835 Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrates his electromagnetic telegraph system
March 10, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell sent a message to his associate Thomas Watson with the aid of his new invention, the telephone
Heinrich Hertz experiments with radio waves that become known as Hertzian waves and leads to the development of radio broadcasting
Guglielmo Marconi used Morse, Bell, and Hertz ideas to transmit waves without the aid of wires
In 1912David Sarnoff relayed news from Nantucket Island that he received distress calls from the Titanic on his Marconi wireless device
Federal Government Polices the Airwaves
Federal government decided to regulated broadcasting almost as soon as it was invented
The Radio Act of 1912 required licenses for people who wanted to broadcast or receive messages
KDKA Launches Commercial Broadcasting
October 27, 1920 the U.S. Department of Commerce used the powers of the Radio Act of 1912 to license KDKA as the nations first commercial station
The Radio Audience Expands Quickly
In 1922 Americans spent $60 million on receivers
More than 500 stations began broadcasting in 1922
The Radio Act of 1912 would accept commercial sponsors
oBlanket Licensing
In 1923 the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) sued several stations for payment, claiming that broadcasting ASCAP licensed music on the radio meant that people would buy less sheet music
oCommercial Sponsorship
The success of commercial sponsorship was a way to support radio
Station WEAF in New York charged $100 for every 10 minutes
The cost of airing programs was solved
Congress Regulates Radio
The Radio Act of 1927 formed the Federal Radio Commission under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce
Limitations of air space required government regulation
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was formed in 1934 to regulate the expanding wireless medium
War of the Worlds
October 30, 1938 the Mercury Theater broadcasted a play based on the H.G. Wells story War of the Worlds
This episode demonstrated how easily alarming information could be innocently misrepresented
Radio Networks Expand
David Sarnoff launches NBC
January 1927 NBC formed two networks:
oRed Network
oBlue Network
RCA continued as the worlds largest distributor of radios
William S. Paley starts CBS
Paley became the nemesis of NBC, and the competition developed American Broadcasting
Edward Noble buys American Broadcasting Company (ABC) for $8 million
Radio in the T.V. ERA
The FCC license FM to compete with television
Licensed recordings launch Disc Jockeys
Clock and car radios make radio portable
People who listen in their cars on the way to and from work are titled Drive-time listeners
The Business of Radio
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 Overhauls Radio
This act removes the limit on the number of radio stations a company can own
Cross-ownership allows companies to own radio and television stations in the same market
Radio depends on ready-made formats
Technology and the Future
Identifying a specific audience segment and programming is called narrow casting
Demand programming is a term that describes radio future possibilities
New Digital Audio broadcasting can send music and information in the form of zeroes and ones as in a computer code