Spanish Verb Book

Present Tense
The following section will be the present you are implying that the action is occurring at the present time. For example: Joseph reads the book. The reads in the sentence shows that Joseph is in the process of reading the book.

Regular AR Infinitives
acabar (de) to come after
acompaar to accompany
admirar to admire
ayudar to help
bailar to dance
bajar to go down
brillar to shine
buscar to look for
caminar to walk
cantar to sing
cenar to have supper
chupar to suck
cocinar to cook
colabarar to collaborate
coleccionar to collect
comenzar to start
comprar to buy
conservar to conserve
contestar to answer
dar to give
dejar to leave
descansar to rest
dibujar to draw
doblar to turn
ensear to teach
entrar to enter
escuchar to listen
esquiar to ski
estudiar to study
evitar to avoid
explicar to explain
fascinar to fascinate
formar to farm
ganar to win
gustar to like
hablar to speak
interesar to interest
lavar to wash
limpiar to clean
llegar to arrive
llevar to take
mirar to look at
neccisitar to need
observar to observe
olividar to forget
pagar to pay for
participar to participate
pasar to spend time
patinar to skate
pesear to wish
practicar to practice
preguntar to ask
preparar to prepare
prestar to lend
programar to program
quedar to be located
regresar to spend money
renunciar to renounce
respetar to respect
sacar to take out
tomar to take
trabajar to work
viajar to travel
visitar to visit
Canta muy bien. She sings very well.

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Hablo espaol, I speak Spansh.

Poder ayundo tu? Can I help you?
Te viajar? Do you travel?
viajar – to travel cantar – to sing ayudar – to help hablar – to speak
viajo viajamos canto cantamos ayudo ayudamos hablo hablamos
viajas — cantas — ayudas — hablas —
viaja viajan canta cantan ayuda ayudan habla habla hablan
Regular AR’s are the most common of all verbs, to use them, remove the ar ending and insert the appropriate ending on the chart: o for i ___, as for you ___, a for he/she ___, amos for we ___, an for they ___. You can also use the following chart for the respective endings.
Singlar Plural
o amos 1st Person
as — 2nd Person
a an 3rd Person
Irregular AR’s
dar to give
estar to be
Da el perro Mike. He gives the dog to Mike.

Yo quiero a estar un abogado. I want to be a lawyer o for singular
Ella est mi amiga. She is my friend.

Yo doy t este carro. I give you this car.

estar – to be dar – to give
estoy estamos doy damos
estas — das —
esta estan da dan
Irregular AR’s truly have no rule, to use them you must learn the specific way each is conjugated. See the conjugations above.

AR Stem-Changers (e – ie)
cerrar to close
empezar to begin
nevar to show
pensar to think (about)
recomendar to reccomend
Pieso el dinero. I am thinking about the money.

Cierra el libro. He closes the book.

Ellos empiezan a leer. They begin to read.

Yo recomiendo el pollo. I recommend the chicken.

pensar – to think cerrar – to close nevar – to show empezar – to begin
pieso pensamos cierro cerramos nievo nevamos empiezo empezamos
piesas — cierras — nievas — empiezas —
piesa piensan cierra cierran nieva nievan empieza empiezan
The AR stem-changers (e – ie) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last e in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the ar ending) to an ie, then you remove the ar ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the e to an ie, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(e – ie) o (e – e) amos 1st Person
(e – ie) as — — 2nd Person
(e – ie) a (e – ie) an 3rd Person
AR Stem-Changers (o – ue)
almorzar to have lunch
costar to cost
encontrar to find
recordar to remember
volar to show
jugar* to play
* jugar is a unique verb, it is treated as the o – ue verbs are, but with a u – ue.

Muestras mi tu trabajar. Show me your work.

Cuesta muchos dinero. It costs much money.

Juego el partido. I play the game.

Encuentran un amigo. They find a friend.

mostrar – to show costar – to cost volar – to show jugar* – to play
muestro mostramos cuesto costamos vuelo volamos juego jugamos
muestras — cuestas — vuelas — juegas —
muestra muestran cuesta cuestan vuela vuelan juega juegan
The AR stem-changers (o – ue) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last o in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the ar ending) to an ue, then you remove the ar ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the o to a ue, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(o – ue) o (o – o) amos 1st Person
(o – ue) as — — 2nd Person
(o – ue) a (o – ue) an 3rd Person
Reflexive AR’s
acercarse to approach
acostarse to go to bed
afeitarse to shave
callarse to be quiet
cepillarse to brush
darse cuenta to realize
darse la mano to shake hands
dedicarse to devote oneself to
desayunarse to eat breakfast
despertarse to wake up
encargarse to take charge
lastimarse to hurt oneself
lavarse to wash oneself
levantarse to get up
llamarse to be named
maquillarse to put on makeup
pienarse to comb
preparse to prepare oneself
quedarse to stay
quejarse to complain
refrescarse to cool off
sentarse to to sit down
servirse to prepare for oneself
Yo me lavo las manos. I wash my hands
Yo me cepillarse los dientas. I brush my teeth.

Ellas se miran. They look at each other.

Yo me lavo. I wash myself.

lavarse – to wash (oneself) prepararse – to prepare (oneself)
me lavo nos lavamos me preparo nos preparamos
te lavas — te preparas —
se lava se lavan se prepara se preparamos
levantarse – to get up afeitarse – to shave
me levanto nos levantamos me afeito nos afeitamos
te levantas — te afeitas —
se levanta se levantan se afeita se afeitan
Reflexive verbs reflect the action of the subject back to the subject. For example a person brushes his hair, or a person shaves himself. These reflexive verbs are conjugated the same way as their non-reflexive counterparts except that to show that the action reflects you must place me, te, se, nos, or se depending upon who is the action is being done to. Reflexive verbs can also be used to express an action in which two or more people do the action to each other, for example, Ellas se miran, or they look at each other.
Regular ER Infinitives
aprender to learn
beber to drink
comer to eat
comprender to understand
correr to run
creer to think
deber to have to
leer to read
prometer to promise
responder to answer
vender to sell
comer – to eat vender – to sell
como momemos vendo vendemos
comes — vendes —
come comen vende venden
leer – to read aprender – to learn
leo lemos aprendo aprendemos
lees — aprendes —
Me gusta nadar. I like to swim.

El lee. He is reading.

Yo debo ir. I have to go.

Janet corre. Janet runs.

Regular ER’s are very common verbs, to use them, remove the er ending and insert the appropriate ending on the chart: o for i ___, es for you ___, e for he/she ___, emos for we ___, en for they ___. You can also use the following chart for the respective endings.
Singlar Plural
o emos 1st Person
es — 2nd Person
e en 3rd Person
Irregular ER’s (oddballs)
ser to be
tener to have
Soy inteligente. I am Intelligent.

Tu eres estupido. You are stupid.

Yo tengo un libro. I have a book.

Ellos tienen dinero. They have some money.

ser – to be tener – to have
soy somos tengo tenemos
eres — tienes —
es son tiene tienen
Irregular ER’s (oddballs) really have no pattern at all, each one is different. And each one you must learn on your own.

Irregular ER’s (First Person)
conocer to know
desaparecer to disappear
hacer to do, make
parecer to seem
poner to put, place, set
saber to know
traer to bring
ver to see
Yo conozco esa. I know that.

Pones la mesa. Set the table.

Lo veo. I see it.

Nosotros traemos dinero. We bring money.

conocer – to know hacer – to do, make
conozco conocemos hago hacemos
conoces — haces —
conoce conocen hace hacen
poner – to put, place, set saber – to know
pongo ponemos s sabemos
pones — sabes —
pone ponen sabe saben
traer – to bring ver – to see
traigo traemos veo vemos
traes — ves —
trae traen ve ven
Irregular ER’s (First Person) follow the same rule regular ers except that the first person singular is changed. You must find the way that each is changed.

ER Stem Changers (e – ie)
perder to lose
entender to understand
querer to want
encender to turn on, light up
defender to defend
Yo pierdo mi cabeza. I am losing my head.

El pierde el partido. He is losing the game.

Entiendo el mathematico. I understand the math.

El entiende la palabra. He understands the word.

perder – to lose entender – to understand
pierdo perdemos entiendo entendemos
pierdes — entiendes —
pierde pierden entiende entienden
querer – to want encender – to turn on, light up
quiero queremos enciendo encendemos
quieres — enciendes —
quiere quieren enciende encienden
The ER stem-changers (e – ie) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last e in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the er ending) to an ie, then you remove the er ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the e to an ie, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(e – ie) o (e – e) emos 1st Person
(e – ie) es — — 2nd Person
(e – ie) e (e – ie) en 3rd Person
ER Stem changers (o – ue)
poder to be able
volver to return
mover to move
morder to bite
Yo puedo cantar muy bien. I can sing very well.

Ella vuelve aqui. She is returning here.

No mueves. Your not moving.

Los lobos muerden. The wolves bite.

poder – to be able volver – to return
puedo podemos vuelvo volvemos
puedes — vuelves —
puede pueden vuelve vuelven
mover – to move morder – to bite
muevo movemos muerdo mordemos
mueves — muerdes —
mueve mueven muerde muerden
The ER stem-changers (o – ue) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last o in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the er ending) to an ue, then you remove the er ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the o to a ue, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(o – ue) o (o – o) amos 1st Person
(o – ue) as — — 2nd Person
(o – ue) a (o – ue) an 3rd Person
Reflexive ER’s
hacerse to become
ponerse to put on
romperse to break
torcerse to twist
Me rompo la pierna. I am breaking my leg.
El se haces un doctor. He is becoming a doctor.

Yo me pongo un calcetin. I am putting on a sock.

Ella se torce el tobillo. She twists her ankle.

romperse – to break hacerse – to become
me rompo nos rompemos me hago nos hacemos
te rompes — te haces —
se rompe se rompen se hace hacen
ponerse – to put on torcerse – to twist
me pongo nos ponemos me torco nos torcemos
te pones — te torces —
se pone se ponen se torce se torcen
Reflexive verbs reflect the action of the subject back to the subject. For example a person brushes his hair, or a person shaves himself. These reflexive verbs are conjugated the same way as their non-reflexive counterparts except that to show that the action reflects you must place me, te, se, nos, or se depending upon who is the action is being done to. Reflexive verbs can also be used to express an action in which two or more people do the action to each other, for example, Ellas se miran, or they look at each other.
Regular IR’s
abrir to open
asistir to attend
decidir to decide
decidir to decide
escribir to write
exigir to demand
existir to exist
recibir to recieve
vivir to live
Yo escribo. I am writing it.

Lo abres. He opens it.

Ella escribe. She is writing.

El abre el libro. He opens the book.

recibir – to receive escribir – to write
recibo recibimos escribo escribimos
recibes — escribes —
recibe reciben escribe escriben
decidir – to decide abrir – to open
decido decidimos abro abrimos
decides — abres —
decide deciden abre abren
Regular IR’s are somewhat common verbs, to use them, remove the ir ending and insert the appropriate ending on the chart: o for i ___, es for you ___, e for he/she ___, imos for we ___, en for they ___. You can also use the following chart for the respective endings.
Singlar Plural
o emos 1st Person
es — 2nd Person
e en 3rd Person
Irregular IR’s (Oddballs)
decir to say, tell
ir to go
or to hear
venir to come
Yo digo t. I am telling you.

Lo oyes. He hears it.

Yo vengo. I am coming.

Vamos. We are going.

decir – to say, tell ir – to go
digo decimos voy vamos
dices — vas —
dice dicen va van
or – to hear venir – to come
oigo omos vengo venimes
oyes — vienes —
oye oyen viene vienen
Irregular IR’s (oddballs) really have no pattern at all, each one is different. And each one you must learn on your own.

Irregular IR’s (First Person)
conducir to drive
salir to go
traducir to translate
Yo conduzco un carro. I am driving a car
El conduce el autobus. He is driving the bus.

Yo salgo. I am going out.

Nosotros salimos. We are going out.

conducir – to drive salir – to go out traducir – to translate
conduzco conducimos salgo salimos traduzco traducimos
conduces — sales — traduces —
conduce conducen sale salen traduce traducen
Irregular IR’s (First Person) follow the same rule regular irs except that the first person singular is changed. You must find the way that each is changed.

Singular Plural
(none) imos 1st Person
es — 2nd Person
e en 3rd Person
IR Stem Changers (e – ie)
preferir to prefer
sentir to be sorry
mentir to lie
T mientes. You are lying
Prefiero esa. I prefer that.

Lo siento. I am sorry.

T sientes? Are you sorry?
preferir – to prefer sentir – to be sorry
prefiero preferimos siento sentimos
prefieres — sientes —
prefiere prefieren siente sienten
mentir – to lie
miento mentimos
mientes —
miente mienten
The IR stem-changers (e – ie) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last e in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the ir ending) to an ie, then you remove the ir ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the e to an ie, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(e – ie) o (e – e) imos 1st Person
(e – ie) es — — 2nd Person
(e – ie) e (e – ie) en 3rd Person
IR Stem Changers (e – i)
pedir to order
repetir to repeat
servir to serve
Pide arroz con pollo. He orders chicken with rice.

Ellos sirven la comida. They are serving the food.

Repites la pregunta, por favor. Repeat the question please.

Sirves nosotros? Are you serving us?
pedir – to order servir – to serve
pido pedimos sirvo servimos
pides — sirves —
pide piden sirve sirven
repetir – to repeat
repito repitimos
repites —
repite repiten
The IR stem-changers (e – i) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last e in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the ir ending) to an i, then you remove the ir ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the e to an i, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(e – i) o (e – e) imos 1st Person
(e – i) es — — 2nd Person
(e – i) e (e – i) en 3rd Person
IR Stem Changers (o – ue)
dormir to sleep
morir to die
El duerme. He is sleeping.

Ellos duermen. They are sleeping.

Mueres! Your dying!
Muero! I am dying!
dormir – to sleep morir – to die
duermo dormimos muero morimos
duermes — mueres —
duerme duermen muere mueren
The IR stem-changers (o – ue) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last o in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the ir ending) to an ue, then you remove the ir ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the o to a ue, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural
(o – ue) o (o – o) imos 1st Person
(o – ue) es — — 2nd Person
(o – ue) e (o – ue) en 3rd Person
Reflexive IR’s
convertirse to become
reunirse to get together
servirse to prepare for oneself
Yo me sirvo un pollo. I am preparing myself a chicken.

Nos reunimos algun dia. Lets get together someday.

El se converte un hombe. He’s becoming a man.

Te sirves el pescado. Your preparing yourself some fish.

convertirse – to become reunirse – to get together servirse – to prepare for oneself
me converto nos convertimos me reuno nos reunimos me sirvo nos servimos
te convertes — te reunes — te sirves —
se converte se converten se reune se reunen se sirve se sirven
Reflexive verbs reflect the action of the subject back to the subject. For example a person brushes his hair, or a person shaves himself. These reflexive verbs are conjugated the same way as their non-reflexive counterparts except that to show that the action reflects you must place me, te, se, nos, or se depending upon who is the action is being done to. Reflexive verbs can also be used to express an action in which two or more people do the action to each other, for example, Ellas se miran, or they look at each other.
Imperative Mood (Commands)
Words in imperative mood (more commonly known as commands) are something that orders a person or group of persons to take an action. They are similar to other verbs and are taken from the other verbs. They are not conjugated except for singular, or plural commands. Singular command being one that commands only one person, and a plural command commands a group of people. Reflexive verbs also may be used as commands. There are five irregular commands which do not follow the pattern that is set by the commands before it.
Polite Commands
To congugate a not irregular, polite command.

1. Take the first person congugation of the verb (i.e. cantar – canto)
2. Remove the o from the end of the verb.

3. If an AR verb add e to the end, if an ER or IR verb, add a to the end.

4. If the command is plural, add an n to the end of the verb.

5. If the command is reflexive add an se to the end of the verb, then place an accent mark over the originally stressed vowel.

6. If the command is negative place a no before the verb
7. If both negative and reflexive, move the se before the verb (as a separate word), also, remove the added accent mark.

8. If the original verb ended with a CAR, make the C in the new verb a QU.

9. If the original verb ended with a GAR, make the G in the new verb a GU.

10. If the original verb ended with a ZAR, make the Z in the new verb a C.

11. You may place an usted (for singular) ustedes (for plural) lafter the verb, but it is not necessary.

1. Locate the verb on the chart below, then use the appropriate form of the verb.

Verb Singular Plural Meaning
dar d den to give
estar est estn to be (temporary)
ir vaya vayan to go
saber sepa sepan to know
ser sea sean to be (permanent)
2. If the command is negative, place a no before the verb.

3. You may place an usted (for singular) ustedes (for plural) lafter the verb, but it is not necessary.

Examples:
Singular (not negative, non reflexive, not irregular)
Cante usted bien. Sing well.

Beba usted la leche. Drink the milk.

Singular (negative, non relexive, not irregular)
No pase usted a la puerta. Don’t go to the door.

No traiga ustedes los libros. Don’t bring the books.

Singular (not negative, relexive, not irregular)
Levntese usted a las ocho. Get up at eight o’clock.

Si sintese usted cerca de la mesa. Sit near the table.

Singular (negative, relexive, not irregular)
No se quite usted los guantes. Don’t take off the gloves.

No se lave usted la cara. Don’t wash your face.

Plural (not negative, not reflexive, not irregular)
Hagan ustedes la tarea. Do your homework.

Estudien ustedes la leccin. Study your lesson.

Plural (negative, non relexive, not irregular)
No hagan ustedes el trabajo ahora. Don’t do the work now.

No coman ustedes el pan. Don’t eat the bread.

Plural (not negative, relexive, not irregular)
Acestense ustedes tarde. Go to bed late.

Acstense ustedes en casa. Stay at home.

Plural (negative, relexive, not irregular)
No se ponanse ustedes los zapatoes. Don’t wear your shoes.

No se acuestan ustedes a las diez. Don’t wake up at six.

Mixed (Irregular)
D usted el libro a Juan. Give John the book.

Estn ustedes all a las dos. Be there at two o’clock.

Vaya usted con ellos. Go with them.

Sean ustedes bien por favor. Please be good.

Sepa usted la leccin por maana. Know the lession for tomorrow.

Informal Commands
Whenever you give a command to a person that is your friend and you know. You do not need to use the polite version of that command most often an informal command is used. These have a completely different form than that of the formal commands.

Using affirmative familiar commands.

When using one of these commands simply follow these steps:
1. First select the verb you are going to use.

2. Take the normal second person conjugate of the verb (i.e. cantar – cantas)
3. Remove the s from the end of the verb.

Examples:
Toma t caf. Drink coffee.

Vive t en Mxico. Live in Mexico.

Trae t el dinero. Bring the money
Oye t la msica. Listen to the music.

Canta t ahora. Sing now.

Come t la ensalada. Eat the salad.

Escribe t la carta. Write the letter.

Empieza a leer. Begin reading.

Vuelve pronto. Come back soon.

Da el dinero a Jos. Give the money to Jos.

Using negative familiar commands.

1. First select the verb you are going to use.

2. Take the first person conjugate of that verb.

3. Take the first person congugation of the verb (i.e. cantar – canto)
4. Remove the o from the end of the verb.

5. If an AR verb add e to the end, if an ER or IR verb, then add a to the end.

6. Then place s at the end of the word.

Examples:
No mires la televisin esta noche. Don’t watch TV tonight.

No aprendas esta leccin. Don’t learn the lesson.

No asistas al concierto. Do not attend the concert.

No cier cieres la puerta. Don’t close the door.

No envuelvas el paquete. Wrap the packet.

No pongas el espejo alli. Don’t put the menu there.

No vengas con cosotros. Don’t come with us.

No hagas el favor. Don’t do the favor.

No veias al museo con Robert. Don’t go to the museum with Robert.

No contestas a mi pregunta. Don’t answer my question.

Irregular Familiar Commands
Certain commands are irregular and do not follow the pattern, refer to the chart for them.

Verb Familiar Command
Decir Di
Hacer Haz
Ir Ve
Poner Pon
Salir Sal
Ser S
Tener Ten
Venir Ven
Examples:
Sal de me casa. Leave my house.

Haz el favor de escuchar. Do me the favor of listening.

Pon la silla aqui, por favor. Set the chair here, please.

Di algo. Say something.

Ven conmigo en seguida. Come with me at once.

S bueno. Be good.

Ve aqui. Come here.

Ten paciencia. Have patience.

Reflexive Informal Commands
For affirmative reflexive informal commands simply attach te to the end, and add an accent mark above the previously stressed syllable.

For negative reflexive informal commands place a te in front of the verb (as a separate word), there is no accent to place.

Examples:
No te quites los guantes. Don’t take off the gloves.

No te laves la cara. Don’t wash your face.

No te ponas el pollo. Don’t fix yourself the chicken.

Levnteste a las ocho. Get up at eight o’clock.

Si sinteste cerca de la mesa. Sit near the table.

Maquilleste en la cara. Put make up on your face.

Preterite (Past) Tense
This section will explain how to use all the previously mentioned verbs in the past tense. For example if you want to say I drank the milk, instead of I am drinking the milk. Simply follow the new rules for conjugation with the old verbs.

Regular AR Verbs
Mi leccin de piano termin a las ocho ayer. My piano lesson ended at eight yesterday.

El invierno pasado nev mucho. Last winter it snowed a lot.

Nosotros admiramos las pinturas en el museo. We admired the pictures in the museum.

Quin compr el coche? Who bought the car?
prestar – to lend encontrar – to find contestar – to answer pensar – to think
prest prestamos encontr encontramos contest contestamos pens pensamos
prestaste — encontraste — contestaste — pensaste —
prest prestaron encontr encontraron contest contestaron pens pensaron
The preterite tense is equivalent to the past tense in English: I ate, she went, we talked, did he work?, we did not speak.. To form the preterite tense AR’s simply remove the ar at the end and instead add the following ending depending upon the subject of the verb:
yo
t aste
usted, l, ella
nosotros amos
ustedes, ellos, ellas aron
Regular ER Verbs
Bebimos vino anoche. We drank wine last night.

Ella no devolvi los libros a la biblioteca. She did not return the books to the library.

Qu vendieron ayer? What did they sell yesterday?
Que aprendieron ustedes en la clase? What did you learn in class?
romper – to break defender – to defend mover – to move aprender – to learn
romp rompimos defend defendimos mov movimos aprend aprendimos
rompiste — defendiste — moviste — aprendiste —
rompi rompieron defendi defendieron movi movieron aprendi aprendieron
The preterite tense is equivalent to the past tense in English: I ate, she went, we talked, did he work?, we did not speak.. To form the preterite tense ER’s simply remove the er at the end and instead add the following ending depending upon the subject of the verb:
yo
t iste
usted, l, ella i
nosotros imos
ustedes, ellos, ellas ieron
Regular IR Verbs
A qu hora salieron ayer? At what time did they leave yesterday?
l dividi el pastel en cuatro partes. He divided the pie into parts.

Escribieron una carta anoche. They wrote a letter to their relatives.

Prometiste a traer los aiertas. You promised to bring the tapes.

recibir – to recieve escribir – to write describir – to describe abrir – to open
recib recibimos escrib escribimos describ describimos abr abrimos
recibiste — escribiste — describiste — abriste —
recibi recibieron escribi escribieron describi describieron abri abrieron
The preterite tense is equivalent to the past tense in English: I ate, she went, we talked, did he work?, we did not speak.. To form the preterite tense IR’s simply remove the ir at the end and instead add the following ending depending upon the subject of the verb:
yo
t iste
usted, l, ella i
nosotros imos
ustedes, ellos, ellas ieron
Irregular Verbs in Preterite Tense
There are several groups of irregular verbs in past tense. Each type is different and unrelated. Each are conjugated differently than the previously mentioned way, and some are very different.

Oddballs
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form
dar – to give di diste dio dimos dieron
ir* – to go fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron
ser* – to go fui fuiste fue Fuimos fueron
*Though ir and ser share the same conjugation they have different meanings you must use context clues to discover the meanings
Yo di el coche. I gave him the car.

Ella fue a la tienda. She went to the store
Nosotros fuimos hombres. We were friends.

Ellos fueron casa. They went home.

Diste tu el libro a ella? Did you give the book to her?
This group has no real pattern and is very odd.
The U-Stem Irregulars
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form
andar – to walk anduve auviste anduvo anduvimos anduvieron
caber – to fit cupe cupistestuvo cupo cupimos cupieron
estar – to be estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvieron
poder – to be able pude pudiste pudo pudimos pudieron
saber – to know supe supiste supo supimos supieron
poner – to put puse pusiste puso pusimos pusieron
tener – to have tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvieron
Yo anduve a escuela. I walked to school.

Ella cupo en buena. She fit in well.

Nosotros tuvimos un casa. We had a house.

Ella estuvo un profesora. She was a teacher.

Ellos pudieron a nadar. They were able to swim.

The J-Stem Irregulars
Verb – Meaninge I Form You Form He Form We Form They form
conducir-to drive conduje condujiste condujo condujimos condujeron
decir – to say dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijeron
traer – to bring traje trajiste trajo trajinos trajeron
Yo conduje casa. I drove home.

Dijiste ayer. You told me yesterday.

Ella trajo el libro. She brought the book.

Ellos dijeron ayer. They said yesterday.

Yo traje el coche. I brought the car.

The I-Stem Irregulars
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form
hacer to do,make hice hiciste hizo* hicimos hicieron
querer – to want quise quisiste quiso quisimos quisieron
venir – to come vine viniste vino vinimos vinieron
*This instance is irregular more than the other irregulars.

Yo hice un nota buena. I made a good grade.

Ella quiso un gata. She wants a cat.

Nosotros vinimos casa. We came home.

Ellos quisieron la comida. They want food.

Ella hizo la tarjeta. She made the card
The Y-Stem Irregulars
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form
caer – to fall ca caste cay camos cayeron
creer – to believe cre creste crey cremos creyeron
or – to hear o oste oy omos oyeron
leer – to read le leste ley lemos leyeron
Ella cay ayer. She fell yesterday.

Yo o t. I heard you.

Lemos el libro. We read the book.

Creyeron me. They believe me.

Yo o las noticas. I heard the news.

Imperfect tense
In Spanish something is considered immperfect tense if it is equivalent to the english used to or the like, an action that was repeated.

Imperfect AR Verbs
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form
estar – to be estaba estabas estaba estbamos estaban
ayudar – to help ayudaba ayudabas ayudaba ayudbamos ayudaban
andar – to walk andaba andabas andaba andbamos andaban
preguntar – to ask preguntaba preguntabas preguntaba preguntbamos preguntaban
Yo estudiaba mis lecciones todos los los dias. I studied my lessons every day.

Mi familia viajaban durante el verano. My family used to travel during the summer.

Tu estabas mi amigo. You used to be my friend.

El ayudabame muchos. He used to help me a lot.

Nosotros andbamos a la tienda. We used to walk to the store.

To form imperfect AR verbs you simply remove the AR at the end of the verb and insert the following depending upon the subject needed.

yo aba
t abas
usted, l, ella aba
nosotros bamos
ustedes, ellos, ellas aban
Imperfect ER Verbs
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form
vender – to sell venda vendas venda vendamos vendan
comer – to eat coma comas coma comamos coman
poner – to put pona Ponas pona ponamos ponan
hacer – to make haca Hacas haca hacamos hacan
Yo venda libros en la tienda. I used to sell books in the store.

Nosotros comamos pollo todos las dias. We used to eat chicken every day.

El pona la mesa. He used to set the table.

Ellos beban vino. They used to drink wine.

Yo lea los libros. I used to read books.

To form imperfect ER verbs you simply remove the ER at the end of the verb and insert the following depending upon the subject needed.

yo a
t as
usted, l, ella a
nosotros amos
ustedes, ellos, ellas an
Imperfect IR Verbs
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form
dormir – to sleep dorma dormas dorma dormamos dorman
sentir – to feel senta sentas senta sentamos sentan
partir – to leave parta partas parta partamos partan
salir – to go out sala salas sala salamos salan
Yo me dorma temprano. I used to go to sleep early.

El senta enjoada a tu. I used to feel mad at you.

Nosotros sentamos tarde. We used to leave late.

Ellos salan en domingo. They used to go out on Sunday.

Yo sala siempre todos las dias. I used to go out almost every day.

To form imperfect IR verbs you simply remove the IR at the end of the verb and insert the following depending upon the subject needed.

yo a
t as
usted, l, ella a
nosotros amos
ustedes, ellos, ellas an
Irregular Imperfect Verbs
Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form
ser – to be era eras era eramos eran
ir – to go iba ibas iba ibamos iban
ver – to see vea veas vea veamos vean
Nosotros ibamos a la tienda. We used to go to the store.

Yo vea un doctor. I used to see a doctor.

Ellos eramos loco. They used to be crazy.

El era un estudiante. He used to be a student.

Tu ibas a casa temprano. You used to go home early
These three verbs are the only verbs that are irregular in this tense, simply follow the conjugations above.


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